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Reserve Requirements Chapter 14. Legal Reserve Requirements The focal point of the Federal Reserve’s control of our money supply is legal reserve requirements.

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Presentation on theme: "Reserve Requirements Chapter 14. Legal Reserve Requirements The focal point of the Federal Reserve’s control of our money supply is legal reserve requirements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reserve Requirements Chapter 14

2 Legal Reserve Requirements The focal point of the Federal Reserve’s control of our money supply is legal reserve requirements –Every financial institution in the country is legally required to hold a certain percentage of its deposits on reserve, either in the form of deposits at its Federal Reserve District Bank or in its own vaults 14-9 Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Legal Reserve Requirements Technical Term Meanings –Required Reserves (RR) is the minimum amount of vault cash and deposits (RD) at the Federal Reserve District Bank that must be held (kept on the books) by the financial institution –Actual Reserves (RD) is what the bank is holding (on the books) –Excess Reserves = Actual Reserves - Required Reserves ER = RD - RR Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Legal Reserve Requirements [March 1997] Checking Accounts $ million 3% Over 42.8 million 10% Time Deposits 0% Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Legal Reserve Requirements [March 1997] Checking Accounts $ million 3% Over 42.8 million 10% Time Deposits 0% If a bank had $100 million in checking deposits (DD), how much reserves would it be required to hold? Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Legal Reserve Requirements [March 1997] Checking Accounts $ million 3% Over 42.8 million 10% Time Deposits 0% If a bank had $100 million in checking deposits (DD), how much reserves would it be required to hold? The model below excludes vault cash Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Legal Reserve Requirements [March 1997] Checking Accounts $ million 3% Over 42.8 million 10% Time Deposits 0% If a bank had $100 million in checking deposits (DD), how much reserves would it be required to hold? The model below excludes vault cash Fed Bank DD RD X 42.8 = X 57.2 = Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Legal Reserve Requirements [March 1997] Checking Accounts $ million 3% Over 42.8 million 10% Time Deposits 0% If a bank had $100 million in checking deposits (DD), how much reserves would it be required to hold? The model below excludes vault cash Fed Bank DD RD X 42.8 = X 57.2 = RR = RR Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Legal Reserve Requirements [March 1997] Checking Accounts $ million 3% Over 42.8 million 10% Time Deposits 0% If a bank had $100 million in checking deposits (DD), how much reserves would it be required to hold? The model below excludes vault cash Fed Bank DD RD X 42.8 = X 57.2 = RR = RR ER Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 Legal Reserve Requirements [March 1997] Checking Accounts $ million 3% Over 42.8 million 10% Time Deposits 0% If a bank had demand deposits (DD) of 1,000 million ($1 billion) and held 120 million in actual reserves (RD) in the form of deposits at the Federal Reserve District Bank, calculate its required reserves (RR) and its excess reserves (ER) Fed Bank DD RD X 42.8 = X = RR = RR ER , Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 What About Negative Excess Reserves? If actual reserves (RD) are less than Required Reserves (RR), the excess Reserves (ER) are negative –If a bank does find itself short, it will usually borrow reserves from another bank that does have excess reserves. These are called federal funds and the interest rate charge is called the federal funds rate –A bank may also borrow reserves (RD) from its Federal Reserve District Bank at its discount window Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 A bank’s primary reserves are its vault cash and its deposits at the the Federal District Bank –These reserves pay no interest, therefore the banks try to hold no more than the Federal Reserve requires Primary and Secondary Reserves Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Every bank holds secondary reserves, mainly in the form of very short-term U.S. government securities –Treasury bills, notes, certificates, and bonds (that will mature in less than a year) are generally considered a bank’s secondary reserves –These can be quickly converted to cash without loss if a bank suddenly needs money Primary and Secondary Reserves Copyright  2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


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