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Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 29 Reptiles and Birds Section 1: Reptiles Section 2: Birds.

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 29 Reptiles and Birds Section 1: Reptiles Section 2: Birds."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 29 Reptiles and Birds Section 1: Reptiles Section 2: Birds

4 Characteristics of Reptiles  Reptiles are fully adapted to life on land Reptiles Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29  Characteristics that allow reptiles to succeed on land include a shelled egg, scaly skin, and more efficient circulatory and respiratory systems.

5  The leathery shell protects the internal fluids and embryo. Amniotic Eggs  The amnion is a membrane that surrounds a developing embryo Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  An amniotic egg is covered with a protective shell and has several internal membranes. Chapter 29

6 Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

7 Dry, Scaly Skin  Dry skin keeps reptiles from losing internal fluids to the air Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  A layer of external scales keeps reptiles from drying out.  Some reptiles, like snakes, must shed their skins to grow. Chapter 29

8 Respiration  Reptiles depend on lungs for gas exchange Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  A reptile’s lungs have a large surface area.  With more oxygen, more energy can be released through metabolic reactions and made available for more complex movements. Chapter 29

9 Circulation  Oxygen from the lungs enters into the circulatory system Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  Most reptiles have two separate atria and one ventricle. Chapter 29

10 Feeding and Digestion  Most reptiles are carnivores, but some are herbivores Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  To make it easier to swallow prey whole, snakes have loosely jointed jaws that can spread apart to take in their food. Chapter 29

11 Excretion  Kidneys filter the blood to remove waste products Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  Water reabsorption enables reptiles to conserve water and maintain homeostasis in their bodies. Chapter 29

12 The Brain and Senses  Vision is the main sense in most reptiles Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  Some reptiles have tympanic membranes and others detect vibrations through their jaw bones.  In snakes, Jacobson’s organs in the mouth are used to sense odors. Chapter 29

13 Temperature Control  Reptiles are ectotherms and regulate their body temperatures by basking in the sun for warmth or burrowing in the ground to cool off Reptiles Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

14 Movement  Some reptiles move with limbs sprawled to their sides and push against the ground Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  Crocodiles have limbs rotated further under the body and can bear more weight and move faster. Chapter 29

15 Reproduction  Reptiles have internal fertilization Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  After fertilization, the egg develops to form the new embryo and an amniotic egg.  Most reptile eggs are buried and the sun incubates them.  After laying their eggs, most females leave them alone to hatch. Chapter 29

16 29.1 Reptiles Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

17 Lizards and Snakes 29.1 Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  Lizards have legs with clawed toes. Chapter 29  Lizards usually have moveable eyelids, a lower jaw with a moveable hinge joint, and tympanic membranes.

18 29.1 Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  Snakes lack moveable eyelids and tympanic membranes.  Like lizards, snakes have loosely-jointed jaws, and some snakes have venomous fangs. Chapter 29  Snakes are legless and have shorter tails than lizards.

19 Turtles 29.1 Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  A protective shell encases a turtle’s body.  The dorsal part of the shell is the carapace.  The ventral part of the shell is the plastron.  Many turtles can pull their head and legs inside their shells for protection from predators. Chapter 29

20 Crocodiles and Alligators 29.1 Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  Crocodilians have a four-chambered heart which delivers oxygen more efficiently.  Crocodiles have a long snout, sharp teeth, and powerful jaws.  Alligators generally have a broader snout than crocodiles. Chapter 29

21 Tuataras 29.1 Reptiles Reptiles and Birds  Tuataras look like large lizards and are found on the islands off the coast of New Zealand.  Tuataras have a “third eye” located on the top of their heads that can detect sunlight.  Tuataras have two rows of teeth on the upper jaw. Chapter 29

22 Evolution of Reptiles 29.1 Reptiles Reptiles and Birds Dino Dig Chapter 29

23 Characteristics of Birds  Birds have feathers, wings, lightweight bones, and other adaptations that allow for flight Birds Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

24 Endotherms  Birds are endotherms, which means they generate body heat internally by their own metabolism Birds Reptiles and Birds  A high body temperature enables the cells in a bird’s flight muscles to use large amounts of ATP needed for rapid muscle contraction during flight. Chapter 29

25 Feathers  Birds are the only living animals to have feathers Birds Reptiles and Birds  Feathers have two main functions:  Flight  Insulation Chapter 29

26 29.2 Birds Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

27  Feathers that cover the body, wings, and tail of a bird are called contour feathers.  Contour feathers consist of a shaft with barbs that and are held together by hooks Birds Reptiles and Birds  Down feathers are soft feathers located beneath the contour feathers.  The preen gland secretes oil that adds a waterproof coating to the feathers. Chapter 29

28 Lightweight Bones  A strong, lightweight skeleton allows birds to fly Birds Reptiles and Birds  The bones of birds are unique because they contain cavities of air.  Large, powerful muscles attach to the sternum and keel. Chapter 29

29 Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

30 Respiration  Flight muscles use a large amount of oxygen Birds Reptiles and Birds  When a bird inhales, oxygenated air moves through the trachea into posterior air sacs.  When a bird exhales, deoxygenated air leaves the respiratory system and oxygenated air is sent to the lungs. Chapter 29

31 Circulation 29.2 Birds Reptiles and Birds  Birds have a four-chambered heart. Chapter 29  A bird’s circulatory system helps it maintain high levels of energy by efficient delivery of oxygenated blood to the body.

32 Feeding and Digestion  Birds require large amounts of food to maintain their high metabolic rate Birds Reptiles and Birds  Many birds have a crop at the base of the esophagus that stores food.  The gizzard contains small stones that crush food the birds have swallowed. Visualizing Feeding and Digestion Chapter 29

33 The Brain and Senses  The cerebellum is large because birds need to coordinate movement and balance during flight Birds Reptiles and Birds  The cerebrum controls eating, singing, flying, and instinctive behavior. Chapter 29

34 29.2 Birds Reptiles and Birds  Birds of prey have eyes in the front of the head, which allows them to focus easily.  Some birds have eyes on the sides, enabling them to see nearly 360 degrees.  Birds also have a good sense of hearing. Chapter 29  Birds have excellent vision.

35 Reproduction 29.2 Birds Reptiles and Birds  All birds have internal fertilization.  Birds incubate the egg or eggs and feed the young after hatching. Chapter 29  After fertilization, the amniotic egg develops and is encased within a hard shell.

36 29.2 Birds Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

37 29.2 Birds Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

38 29.2 Birds Reptiles and Birds Evolution of Birds Chapter 29  Fossil evidence shows that birds evolved from the same line as crocodiles and dinosaurs.  Archaeopteryx was an ancient bird with a reptile-like tail, clawed fingers on the wings, teeth, and a body covered with feathers. Archaeopteryx

39 Reptiles and Birds Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson. Chapter 29

40 Which is not a characteristic of birds? A. ectotherm B. light-weight bones C. amniotic eggs D. scales covering legs Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

41 Which is not an accurate description of a snake’s feeding methods? A. carnivorous B. tongue assists in swallowing C. venom paralyzes and digests D. skull bones and jaw joined loosely Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

42 Which is not a feature of lizards? A. tympanic membrane B. lack of moveable eyelids C. claws D. hinged lower jaw Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

43 Which animal does not have an amnion that surrounds its developing embryo? A. hawk B. human C. salamander D. squirrel Reptiles and Birds Chapter Formative Questions

44 What does a snake detect with its Jacobson’s organs? A. heat B. odors C. sounds D. visual images Reptiles and Birds Chapter Formative Questions

45 Which term describes the way reptiles maintain their internal temperature? A. ectothermic B. exothermic C. homeodermic D. thermodermic Reptiles and Birds Chapter Formative Questions

46 What do snakes use for hearing? A. carapace B. jaw bones C. plastron D. tympanic membranes Reptiles and Birds Chapter Formative Questions

47 How do birds maintain body heat? A. amnionically B. externally C. internally D. superficially Reptiles and Birds Chapter Formative Questions

48 What are feathers made of? A. calcium B. chitin C. collagen D. keratin Reptiles and Birds Chapter Formative Questions

49 What organ in birds reabsorbs water from uric acid? A. cloaca B. bladder C. kidney D. pancreas Reptiles and Birds Chapter Formative Questions

50 What is the term that means “to maintain favorable conditions for hatching”? A. gestation B. incubation C. maturation D. pregnancy Reptiles and Birds Chapter Formative Questions

51 What is the function of Jacobson’s Organs? A. feeding B. breathing C. ejecting venom D. sensing odors Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Chapter Assessment Questions

52 Which reptile mother can keep its eggs inside its body until they hatch? A. turtle B. crocodile C. snake D. tuatara Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Chapter Assessment Questions

53 Which correctly describes a bird’s circulatory system? A. two atria and one ventricle B. four chambered heart C. incomplete septum D. single loop system Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Chapter Assessment Questions

54 Which is a key adaptation that enables reptiles to live on land? A. Eggs have shells. B. Eggs are fertilized internally. C. Eggs are released in large numbers. D. Eggs hatch outside the female’s body. Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Standardized Test Practice

55 Which structure makes the reptile heart more efficient than the heart of amphibians? Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Standardized Test Practice

56 Which membrane contains food that provides nutrition to the embryo? Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Standardized Test Practice

57 How does the cloaca enable reptiles to maintain homeostasis? A. It filters blood to remove waste. B. It reabsorbs water and minerals. C. It secretes hormones and enzymes. D. It improves gas exchange in the lungs. Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Standardized Test Practice

58 Why do birds have a large cerebellum in their brain? A. to control behavior B. to coordinate visual input C. to sense tastes and smells D. to carry out complex movement Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Standardized Test Practice

59 What does a bird’s gizzard do? A. absorb nutrients B. crush food C. store food D. secrete enzymes Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Standardized Test Practice

60 What type of feathers provides insulation for birds? A. cavity feathers B. contour feathers C. down feathers D. preen feathers Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Standardized Test Practice

61 Glencoe Biology Transparencies Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

62 Image Bank Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

63 Image Bank Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29

64 amnion amniotic egg Jacobson’s organ carapace plastron Reptiles and Birds Vocabulary Section 1 Chapter 29

65 endotherm feather contour feather preen gland down feather sternum air sac incubate Reptiles and Birds Vocabulary Section 2 Chapter 29

66 Reptiles and Birds Chapter 29 Animation  Amniotic Egg Amniotic Egg  Flight Flight  Visualizing Feeding and Digestion Visualizing Feeding and Digestion


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