3 Characteristics of Reptiles Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesCharacteristics of ReptilesReptiles are fully adapted to life on land.Characteristics that allow reptiles to succeed on land include a shelled egg,scaly skin, and more efficient circulatory andrespiratory systems.
4 The amnion is a membrane that surrounds a developing embryo. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesAmniotic EggsThe amnion is a membrane that surrounds a developing embryo.An amniotic egg is covered with a protective shell and has several internal membranes.The leathery shell protects the internal fluids and embryo.
6 Dry skin keeps reptiles from losing internal fluids to the air. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesDry, Scaly SkinDry skin keeps reptiles from losing internal fluids to the air.A layer of external scales keeps reptiles from drying out.Some reptiles, like snakes, must shed their skins to grow.
7 Reptiles depend on lungs for gas exchange. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesRespirationReptiles depend on lungs for gas exchange.A reptile’s lungs have a large surface area.With more oxygen, more energy can be released through metabolic reactions and made available for more complex movements.
8 Oxygen from the lungs enters into the circulatory system. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesCirculationOxygen from the lungs enters into the circulatory system.Most reptiles have two separate atria and one ventricle.
9 Most reptiles are carnivores, but some are herbivores. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesFeeding and DigestionMost reptiles are carnivores, but some are herbivores.To make it easier to swallow prey whole, snakes have loosely jointed jaws that can spread apart to take in their food.
10 Kidneys filter the blood to remove waste products. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesExcretionKidneys filter the blood to remove waste products.Water reabsorption enables reptiles to conserve water and maintain homeostasis in their bodies.
11 Vision is the main sense in most reptiles. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesThe Brain and SensesVision is the main sense in most reptiles.Some reptiles have tympanic membranes and others detect vibrations through their jaw bones.In snakes, Jacobson’s organs in the mouth are used to sense odors.
12 Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesTemperature ControlReptiles are ectotherms and regulate their body temperatures by basking in the sun for warmth or burrowing in the ground to cool off.
13 Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesMovementSome reptiles move with limbs sprawled to their sides and push against the ground.Crocodiles have limbs rotated further under the body and can bear more weight and move faster.
14 Reptiles have internal fertilization. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesReproductionReptiles have internal fertilization.After fertilization, the egg develops to form the new embryo and an amniotic egg.Most reptile eggs are buried and the sun incubates them.After laying their eggs, most females leave them alone to hatch.
16 Lizards have legs with clawed toes. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesLizards and SnakesLizards have legs with clawed toes.Lizards usually have moveable eyelids, a lower jaw with a moveable hinge joint, and tympanic membranes.
17 Snakes are legless and have shorter tails than lizards. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesSnakes are legless and have shorter tails than lizards.Snakes lack moveable eyelids and tympanic membranes.Like lizards, snakes have loosely-jointed jaws, and some snakes have venomous fangs.
18 A protective shell encases a turtle’s body. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesTurtlesA protective shell encases a turtle’s body.The dorsal part of the shell is the carapace.The ventral part of the shell is the plastron.Many turtles can pulltheir head and legs inside their shells forprotection from predators.
19 Crocodiles and Alligators Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesCrocodiles and AlligatorsCrocodilians have a four-chambered heart which delivers oxygen more efficiently.Crocodiles have a long snout, sharp teeth, and powerful jaws.Alligators generally have a broader snout than crocodiles.
20 Tuataras have two rows of teeth on the upper jaw. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 ReptilesTuatarasTuataras look like large lizards and are found on the islands off the coast of New Zealand.Tuataras have a “third eye” located on the top of their heads that can detect sunlight.Tuataras have two rows of teeth on the upper jaw.
21 Evolution of Reptiles 29.1 Reptiles Chapter 29 Reptiles and Birds Dino Dig
22 Characteristics of Birds Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsCharacteristics of BirdsBirds have feathers, wings, lightweight bones, and other adaptations that allow for flight.
23 Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsEndothermsBirds are endotherms, which means they generate body heat internally by their own metabolism.A high body temperature enables the cells in a bird’s flight muscles to use large amounts of ATP needed for rapid muscle contraction during flight.
24 Birds are the only living animals to have feathers. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsFeathersBirds are the only living animals to have feathers.Feathers have two main functions:FlightInsulation
26 Down feathers are soft feathers located beneath the contour feathers. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsFeathers that cover the body, wings, and tail of a bird are called contour feathers.Contour feathers consist of a shaft with barbs that and are held together by hooks.Down feathers are soft feathers located beneath the contour feathers.The preen gland secretes oil that adds a waterproof coating to the feathers.
27 A strong, lightweight skeleton allows birds to fly. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsLightweight BonesA strong, lightweight skeleton allows birds to fly.The bones of birds are unique because they contain cavities of air.Large, powerful muscles attach to the sternum and keel.
29 Flight muscles use a large amount of oxygen. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsRespirationFlight muscles use a large amount of oxygen.When a bird inhales, oxygenated air moves through the trachea into posterior air sacs.When a bird exhales, deoxygenated air leaves the respiratory system and oxygenated air is sent to the lungs.
30 delivery of oxygenated blood to the body. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsCirculationA bird’s circulatory system helps it maintain high levels of energy by efficientdelivery of oxygenated blood to the body.Birds have a four-chambered heart.
31 Many birds have a crop at the base of the esophagus that stores food. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsFeeding and DigestionBirds require large amounts of food to maintain their high metabolic rate.Many birds have a crop at the base of the esophagus that stores food.The gizzard contains small stones that crush food the birds have swallowed.Visualizing Feeding and Digestion
32 Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsThe Brain and SensesThe cerebellum is large because birds need to coordinate movement and balance during flight.The cerebrum controls eating, singing, flying, and instinctive behavior.
33 Birds have excellent vision. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsBirds have excellent vision.Birds of prey have eyes in the front of the head, which allows them to focus easily.Some birds have eyes on the sides, enabling them to see nearly 360 degrees.Birds also have a good sense of hearing.
34 All birds have internal fertilization. Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsReproductionAll birds have internal fertilization.After fertilization, theamniotic egg develops and is encased withina hard shell.Birds incubate the egg or eggs and feed the young after hatching.
37 Fossil evidence shows that birds evolved from the same line as Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 BirdsEvolution of BirdsFossil evidence shows that birds evolved fromthe same line ascrocodiles anddinosaurs.Archaeopteryx was an ancient bird with areptile-like tail, clawed fingers on the wings,teeth, and a body covered with feathers.Archaeopteryx
38 Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Reptiles and BirdsChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
39 Which is not a characteristic of birds? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a characteristic of birds?ectothermlight-weight bonesamniotic eggsscales covering legs
40 Which is not an accurate description of a snake’s feeding methods? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not an accurate description of asnake’s feeding methods?carnivoroustongue assists in swallowingvenom paralyzes and digestsskull bones and jaw joined loosely
41 Which is not a feature of lizards? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a feature of lizards?tympanic membranelack of moveable eyelidsclawshinged lower jaw
42 Which animal does not have an amnion that Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 Formative QuestionsWhich animal does not have an amnion thatsurrounds its developing embryo?hawkhumansalamandersquirrel
43 What does a snake detect with its Jacobson’s organs? Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 Formative QuestionsWhat does a snake detect with its Jacobson’sorgans?heatodorssoundsvisual images
44 Which term describes the way reptiles Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 Formative QuestionsWhich term describes the way reptilesmaintain their internal temperature?ectothermicexothermichomeodermicthermodermic
45 What do snakes use for hearing? Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.1 Formative QuestionsWhat do snakes use for hearing?carapacejaw bonesplastrontympanic membranes
46 How do birds maintain body heat? Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 Formative QuestionsHow do birds maintain body heat?amnionicallyexternallyinternallysuperficially
47 What are feathers made of? Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 Formative QuestionsWhat are feathers made of?calciumchitincollagenkeratin
48 What organ in birds reabsorbs water from uric acid? Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 Formative QuestionsWhat organ in birds reabsorbs water fromuric acid?cloacabladderkidneypancreas
49 What is the term that means “to maintain Chapter 29Reptiles and Birds29.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is the term that means “to maintainfavorable conditions for hatching”?gestationincubationmaturationpregnancy
50 What is the function of Jacobson’s Organs? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat is the function of Jacobson’s Organs?feedingbreathingejecting venomsensing odors
51 Which reptile mother can keep its eggs Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsChapter Assessment QuestionsWhich reptile mother can keep its eggsinside its body until they hatch?turtlecrocodilesnaketuatara
52 Which correctly describes a bird’s circulatory system? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsChapter Assessment QuestionsWhich correctly describes a bird’s circulatorysystem?two atria and one ventriclefour chambered heartincomplete septumsingle loop system
53 Which is a key adaptation that enables reptiles to live on land? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsStandardized Test PracticeWhich is a key adaptation that enables reptilesto live on land?Eggs have shells.Eggs are fertilized internally.Eggs are released in large numbers.Eggs hatch outside the female’s body.
54 Which structure makes the reptile heart more efficient Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsStandardized Test PracticeWhich structuremakes the reptileheart more efficientthan the heart ofamphibians?
55 Which membrane contains food that provides nutrition to the embryo? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsStandardized Test PracticeWhich membranecontains food thatprovides nutritionto the embryo?
56 How does the cloaca enable reptiles to maintain homeostasis? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsStandardized Test PracticeHow does the cloaca enable reptiles tomaintain homeostasis?It filters blood to remove waste.It reabsorbs water and minerals.It secretes hormones and enzymes.It improves gas exchange in the lungs.
57 Why do birds have a large cerebellum in their brain? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsStandardized Test PracticeWhy do birds have a large cerebellum intheir brain?to control behaviorto coordinate visual inputto sense tastes and smellsto carry out complex movement
58 What does a bird’s gizzard do? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsStandardized Test PracticeWhat does a bird’s gizzard do?absorb nutrientscrush foodstore foodsecrete enzymes
59 What type of feathers provides insulation for birds? Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsStandardized Test PracticeWhat type of feathers provides insulationfor birds?cavity featherscontour feathersdown featherspreen feathers
60 Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 29Reptiles and BirdsGlencoe Biology Transparencies
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