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Order Homoptera Aphids, Scale Mealybugs and Allies.

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Presentation on theme: "Order Homoptera Aphids, Scale Mealybugs and Allies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Order Homoptera Aphids, Scale Mealybugs and Allies

2 Homopterans Order Homoptera Aphids Scale Mealybugs Whiteflies Psyllids Leafhoppers Treehoppers, etc.

3 Homopterans Simple metamorphosis Piercing-sucking mouthparts Some with wings Mostly all pests – few predators Source of dyes and shellac

4 Homopterans Locations Plant feeders found on or near plants Some found underground feeding on roots Greenhouses

5 Homopterans Damage Deformed leaves, flowers and fruit Loss of plant vigor and dieback Sooty mold fungi results from “honeydew” waste Transmits diseases to plants inc. Pierce’s Disease of Grapes, Oleander Scorch, Citrus Tristeza Virus, Rose Mosaic Virus

6 Homopterans Controls Various insecticides Dormant oils Biological controls inc. parasitic wasps, ladybird beetles, preying mantids, etc. The garden hose

7 Homopterans Controls (cont’d) Use of low nitrogen fertilizers Good pruning practices Control ants Sanitation

8 Aphids Family Aphididae

9 Aphids

10 Piercing- sucking mouthparts Feeding causes curling or wilting Mosaic viruses, wilts, stunting Secondary host plants

11 Aphids Controls Predators inc.: lady beetles, lacewings, syrphid flies Parasites – Braconid and Chalcidoid parasitic wasps Removal of secondary host plants

12 Aphid Life Cycle Most species overwinter as eggs Spring – eggs hatch into females Females reproduce parthenogenetically – without fertilization

13 Aphid Life Cycle Live young are born without wings (apterous) As population increases alate (winged) forms are produced Alate forms often migrate to a secondary host plant

14 Aphid Life Cycle Apterous forms are again produced As days shorten alate forms are produced again Alates migrate back to primary host plant species

15 Aphid Life Cycle New offspring are now sexual females and males An egg population is produced to overwinter for the next spring

16 Aphid Life Cycle

17 Aphid/Parasite Life Cycle Parasitic wasps parasitize aphids by laying an egg into an aphid

18 Aphid/Parasite Life Cycle Wasp hatches and begins feeding on the live aphid Eventually the aphid dies

19 Aphid/Parasite Life Cycle The wasp pupates in the aphid “mummy”

20 Aphid/Parasite Life Cycle

21 Whiteflies Family Aleyrodidae Piercing- sucking mouthparts Adults are winged White waxy or powdery dust covers bodies First instar is active “crawlers”

22 Whiteflies Following instar stages appear like scale insects Whiteflies undergo complete metamorphosis Adult emerges from a pupa

23 Whitefly Family Aleyrodidae Family Aleyrodidae

24 Whitefly Life Cycle Family Aleyrodidae

25 Whitefly Life Cycle Family Aleyrodidae

26 Soft Scales Family Coccidae – about 85 species Piercing-sucking mouthparts Females – wingless, legs and sessile Sessile – attached directly to stems, foliage or fruit

27 Soft Scales Males – complete metamorphosis Males – gnat-like in appearance Males have no mouthparts Males wings or wingless

28 Soft Brown Scale Family Coccidae

29 Hemispherical Scale Family Coccidae

30 Soft Scales Family Coccidae

31 Armored Scales Family Diaspididae – over 300 species Females – soft bodied w/hard unattached shell Shell formed by waxy secretions Females – eyeless and wingless Males – eyes and wings

32 Armored Scales Parthenogenetic or sexual reproduction Reproduction without fertilization Some oviparous, some bear live young First instar – crawlers Crawlers spread the species Mouthparts are inserted and insect settles

33 Armored Scales Female becomes sessile Infestations can be fatal to plants Typically infest trees and shrubs Some important pests to orchards and shade trees and various shrubs

34 Armored Scales Two most common armored scale San Jose Scale Oystershell Scale

35 San Jose Scale Introduced into California about 1880 Possibly from Asia Spread throughout the country Live young Attacks various plants Infestations can be fatal

36 San Jose Scale MaleFemale Family Diaspididae

37 San Jose Scale Circular in shape Family Diaspididae

38 Oystershell Scale Named for its shape Lays eggs Eggs overwinter under shell Attacks most fruit trees Attacks various ornamental trees and shrubs

39 Oystershell Scale Family Diaspididae

40 Oystershell Scale

41 Leafhoppers Family Cicadellidae Various subfamilies and genera About 2500 species in North America Forms, colors and sizes vary Various patterns Brightly colored

42 Leafhoppers Found in most all situations Host specific and have well defined habitats Overwinter as eggs or adults Many are economically important pests

43 Leafhoppers Few generations per year Cause 5 major types of plant damage Sap-feeding in leaves Interferes with physiology – blockage to phloem and xylem Lays eggs in green twigs Vector plant diseases Stunting and curling of leaves

44 Leafhoppers Family Cicadellidae GWSS & Blue-Green Leafhopper

45 Leafhoppers

46 Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Family Cicadellidae Homalodisca coagulata

47 GWSS – Xylella fastidiosa Pierce’s Disease of GrapesOleander Scorch

48 GWSS Heavy feeder Capable of infecting uninfected, susceptible plants Becomes a carrier by feeding on infected plants Can process 10x body weight/hour GWSS rain

49 GWSS Feeding


51 GWSS Egg Masses



54 GWSS Nymphs and Adult GWSS Nymphs GWSS Adult

55 GWSS Distribution


57 Treehoppers Family Membracidae Various genera Buffalo Treehopper

58 Treehoppers Feeds most on trees and shrubs Nymphs found in grasses and on herbaceous plants One or two generations per year Usually overwinter as eggs

59 Treehoppers Damage caused by a few species Egg laying causes most damage Eggs laid in twigs cause tip dieback Eggs overwinter in the bark Nymphs feed on herbaceous plants

60 Buffalo Treehoppers Adult and juvenile Buffalo Treehoppers

61 Treehoppers Adult Treehopper with Ants Adult Treehopper

62 Treehoppers Thorn-Mimic Treehoppers

63 Treehoppers

64 Spittlebugs Family Cercopidae Feeds on trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants and grasses Nymphs – greenish to brownish Host specific Feeding can cause stunting to plants Nymphs hide in spittle froth Frothy mass can hold several nymphs Adults are active Eggs in late summer – hatch following spring Single generation per year

65 Spittlebugs Spittlebug Nymphs

66 Spittlebugs Spittle Masses

67 Spittlebugs Spittlebug Adults

68 Mealybugs Family Pseudococcidae Over 300 species in the USA Bodies covered with waxy secretion Females elongate-oval Males resemble gnats Reproduction varies among species Found on most parts of an infested plant

69 Mealybugs Feeding weakens plants Honeydew can damage fruit and foliage Three main pest species 1. Citrus mealybug 2. Citrophilus mealy bug Both pests of citrus and greenhouses 3. Longtailed mealybug A greenhouse pest

70 Mealybug Lifecycle Female lays eggs in cottony egg mass First instar nymph stage or crawlers Not yet covered by waxy secretions First and second stage nymphs resemble the female Male spins cocoon at end of second stage – emerges gnat-like Female emerges as large waxy covered adult

71 Mealybug Lifecycle

72 Citrus Mealybug Male citrus mealybug Female citrus mealybug

73 Citrus Mealybug Female citrus mealybug with egg mass Citrus mealybug infestation

74 Citrophilus Mealybug Male Citrophilus mealybug Female Citrophilus mealybugs

75 Longtailed Mealybugs Female longtailed mealybug Male longtailed mealybug

76 Ground Pearls Family Margarodidae About 40 species in North America Some species can reach almost 1” in length Some are root feeders Some pests to citrus and to pines

77 Ground Pearls

78 Psyllids Family Psyllidae A.K.A jumping plantlice Host-specific plant feeders Adults resemble miniature cicadas Strong jumpers Adults have wings

79 Psyllids Nymphs of many species produce waxy secretions – some resembling wooly aphids, others scale Some species transmit virus Some cause leaf damage

80 Psyllids Psyllid eggs Psyllid nymphs top & bottom right

81 Psyllids Adult Melaleuca Psyllid Adult Lerp Psyllid

82 Psyllids White Lerp Psyllids

83 Psyllids Lerp Psyllids

84 Psyllids Psyllid Leaf Damage

85 Woolly Aphids Woolly aphids exude waxy secretions around their bodies Family Eriosomatidae Sexual form lacks mouthparts Ovipositing female lays only one egg

86 Woolly Aphids Some species overwinter on the primary host plant in the egg stage, others pass all generations on one plant Some species feed on multiple host plants Feeding occurs on roots or above ground Some species form galls on the primary host

87 Woolly Aphids Woolly Aphid Infestations

88 Woolly Aphids Woolly Aphid Leaf Gall Woolly Aphid Root Gall

89 Woolly Aphids Ash Woolly Aphid Elm Woolly Aphid

90 Cicada Family Cicadidae Two common varieties of cicadas Dog-day cicada Periodical cicada Most damage to plants is caused by egg laying in stems and twigs causing stem dieback Nymphs feed on roots of mostly herbaceous plants Some species are on an annual cycle The periodical cicada is on a 13 to 17 year cycle

91 Dog-Day Cicada

92 Periodical Cicada

93 The Cicada That Ate Cincinnati

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