3BureaucracyLarge, complex organization of appointed, not elected, officials.“bureau” – French for small desks, referring to the king’s traveling business men who set up small desks in town squaresBureaucracy = “government of small desks”
4Myth or Reality? Some Bureaucratic Myths and Realities Americans dislike bureaucrats.Bureaucracies are growing bigger each year.Most federal bureaucrats work in Washington, D.C.Bureaucracies are ineffective, inefficient and always mired in red tape.
5Max Weber Famous early 20th century economist, German Bureaucracy – well organized, complex machine that is a “rational” way for society to organize its business
6Weber Characteristics Hierarchical authority structure – chain of commandTask specialization – individuals have unique jobs, division of laborExtensive rules – clear policies for the organization to followClear goals – clearly defined mission
7WeberMerit principle – hiring and promotion based on qualities, no jobs for favorsImpersonality – performance judged on productivityIs this a good thing or a bad thing?
8Modern Bureaucracy– New Deal, WWII, increase in programs and gov’t work1950’s – 1970’s – 90% of all federal employees were chosen on meritSalaries also chosen on merit
9Who are bureaucrats?1 out of 100 Americans work for government bureaucracyExamplesUS Postal ServiceAmtrakCorporation for Public BroadcastingInterstate Commerce CommissionFederal Trade CommissonSecurities and Exchange CommissionNational Aeronautics and Space Administration
10What do bureaucrats do?Discretionary action – have the power to execute laws and policies passed down by the president or congress.Implementation – develop procedures and rules for reaching the goal of a new policyRegulation – check private business activityMunn v. Illinois (1877) – SC upheld that government had the right to regulate business rates and services
11AccountabilityBureaucracy is constrained and controlled by the US governmentCongressappropriates money, authorizes the spending of money, oversees agency activityPresidentJob appointments, executive orders, budget control, reorganize agencies
12Iron TrianglesCONGRESSINTEREST GROUPSBUREAUCRACYIron Triangle - three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests
14How it works? Everyone in the triangle has a similar interest Legislators get funding from interest groups and make laws reality with the help of the bureaucracyInterest groups provide valued information to bureaucrats and money to legislatorsBureau chiefs implement legislator policy and interest group goals.
15Why are they “iron”?Strong – bond can’t be broken by President or CongressReferred to as “sub governments,” all the real decisions are made among these 3 groupsMight maintain interests that might not be publicly popular… like what?
16Example – Why is tobacco not illegal? House and Senate agricultural subcommitteesTobacco farmer interest groups (tobacco lobby)Department of AgricultureHouse and Senate representatives, sympathetic to tobacco, receive campaign funds and support from tobacco by interest groups, and the representatives make sure that tobacco farmers are defended through legislation. DOA agency executes the legislation while relying on the Congressional budget. The interest groups provide the DOA with valuable information to effectively execute laws.-COMMON INTEREST – Keep tobacco alive = keep their jobs alive
18Issue Network More complicated connection exists Iron triangle too simple – there are IGs from opposite sides of an issue who competeIssue Network – complex group (includes media) that debates an issue and slows policy-makingPolicy-making is not as smooth with competing demands from IGsPresident can appoint an agency head who steers policy, but can never smoothly control policy
19Controlling the Bureaucracy Patronage - Rewarding supporters with jobs“Spoils system” – created by Andrew Jackson, each President turned over the bureaucracyPendleton Act (1883) - Created in response to criticism of patronage, more jobs will be selected based on meritHatch Act (1939) – agency employees can’t participate in political activities (elections, campaigns, fund raisers, etc.)Softened in recent decades, 1st Amendment issues
20Criticism of Bureaucracy “Red tape” – maze of gov rules, regulations, and paperwork that makes gov overwhelming to citizensConflict – agencies that often work toward opposite goalsDuplication – agencies appear to do the same thingUnchecked growth – agencies expand unnecessarily at high costsWaste – spending more than necessaryLack of accountability – difficult in firing an incompetent bureaucrat