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Bureaucracy literally means “rule by desks or offices”

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Presentation on theme: "Bureaucracy literally means “rule by desks or offices”"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Bureaucracy literally means “rule by desks or offices”

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4  The Federal Bureaucracy is part of the executive branch, which means it is headed by the president; however, the bureaucracy is too large to manage that the Executive Office of the President was created to help oversee all of the departments.

5  Before being granted tenure, a federal bureaucrat normally will serve a one year trial period  Once tenured, a bureaucrat is hard to fire  Average termination timeline being two years  Because of this difficult process, almost no one is fired and the top dogs have strategies for handling incompetent employees  The bureaucrats at the middle and upper levels of our government tend to be highly educated, middle aged white males.  Surveys have found that the higher up bureaucrats are slightly more liberal than the average voter

6 Congress Has power to create, organize, and disband federal agencies Cabinet Departments 15 Departments with specific areas of policies President Most under his control Government Corporations Stand on own Ex. USPS and Amtrak Regulatory Commissions “watchdogs” Regulate parts of economy by creating rules for large industries and businesses that affect the public Independent Agencies Resemble cabinet departments, but smaller and less complex

7  “Quasi legislative” function  The bureaucracy exercises powers that are “quasi legislative” when administrative agencies exercise their rule-making  “Quasi judicial” function  Limited to issues that concern only a particular agency

8  Most agencies can only exist wit congress’s approval  Money can only be spent with Congress’s authorization  Funds can only be spent when they are appropriated  Congress has lessened appropriations committees’ power three ways 1) Created trust funds 2) Changed authorization from permanent or multiyear to annual 3) Cuts  Make use of legislative veto  Investigations Criticisms Appropriation is often less than authorized amount Congress may be in conflict Cuts can be made without regard to merit Needs law that clearly states what agency can and cannot do

9  The greatest increase of bureaucracy in America was seen from  This was a result of WWII and the New Deal  Under the New Deal programs, the government got bigger, because it needed people to run the new agencies  Ex. in response to 9/11 the Department of Homeland Security was created

10  Cabinet  Power is delegated to the cabinet officials, who then oversee departments and agencies  These people oversee bureaucratic operations and advise the president

11  Staff  Made up of the heads of the 15 cabinet departments and all of the people employed by the cabinet

12  Independent Agencies  Resemble Cabinet departments, but smaller and less complex  Free only in sense that they are not a part of a department  Ex. NASA

13  Government Corporations  Stand on their own  Ex. USPS and Amtrak  Businesses created by Congress that charge fees for their services

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15  National Institutes of Health  Environmental Protection Agency  Federal Bureau of Investigation  Armed forces  Coast Guard  Central Intelligence  Federal Reserve Bank  Export-Import Bank  Securities and Exchange Commission  FDA  Department of Justice  And HUNDREDS more

16  Pendleton Act  Response to abuse of spoils system  Assassination of Garfield highlighted it  Led to merit system  Merit system  Hire based on skill, not party politics  Try to limit hiring of people by political favoritism

17 Iron Triangle aka sub government aka power elite  Made up of interest groups, agency bureaucrats, and members of congressional subcommittees  Unites a particular government bureau, its relevant interest group, and congressional supporters  Ultimate goal is to have power in own sphere  Ex. AARP, the House Subcommittee on Aging, and the Social Security Administration working to set government policy on Social Security

18 Benefits Can get important and relevant laws introduced All parties benefit from arrangement Consequences Can become corrupt Can monopolize the policy-making process of the government Focuses only on group interests, not larger population of the country

19  Passed 1939  Federal employees cannot be involved in party activities once hired  Ex. Cannot run, raise funds for party/candidate, or become officers in political organizations or a delegate to a party convention  Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993  Still cannot run in partisan elections, but can work off duty on campaigns of candidate of choice  Definition: severely limited political activities of federal bureaucrats. Revised in 1993 to allow them to do most political activities.

20  Spoils system- system of public employment based on rewarding party supporters and friends  Merit system- system of public employment based where selection and promotion depend on performance rather than political support  Privatization- transferring ownership of a business from public sector (government) to private sector

21  ew.php?id=5358 ew.php?id=5358  subjects/american-government/the- bureaucracy/the-functions-of-the-federal- bureaucracy subjects/american-government/the- bureaucracy/the-functions-of-the-federal- bureaucracy  https://www.boundless.com/political- science/textbooks/boundless-political-science- textbook/bureaucracy-13/the-organization-of- bureaucracy-87/the-executive-departments / https://www.boundless.com/political- science/textbooks/boundless-political-science- textbook/bureaucracy-13/the-organization-of- bureaucracy-87/the-executive-departments /  bureaucracy/faq.html bureaucracy/faq.html


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