4 Who runs the Bureaucracy? The Federal Bureaucracy is part of the executive branch, which means it is headed by the president; however, the bureaucracy is too large to manage that the Executive Office of the President was created to help oversee all of the departments.
5 BureaucratsBefore being granted tenure, a federal bureaucrat normally will serve a one year trial periodOnce tenured, a bureaucrat is hard to fireAverage termination timeline being two yearsBecause of this difficult process, almost no one is fired and the top dogs have strategies for handling incompetent employeesThe bureaucrats at the middle and upper levels of our government tend to be highly educated, middle aged white males.Surveys have found that the higher up bureaucrats are slightly more liberal than the average voter
6 Organization of the Bureaucracy CongressHas power to create, organize, and disband federal agenciesCabinet Departments15 Departments with specific areas of policiesPresidentMost under his controlGovernment CorporationsStand on ownEx. USPS and AmtrakRegulatory Commissions“watchdogs”Regulate parts of economy by creating rules for large industries and businesses that affect the publicIndependent AgenciesResemble cabinet departments, but smaller and less complex
7 What are the Core Functions of the Bureaucracy? “Quasi legislative” functionThe bureaucracy exercises powers that are “quasi legislative” when administrative agencies exercise their rule-making“Quasi judicial” functionLimited to issues that concern only a particular agency
8 How does Congress oversee the bureaucracy? Most agencies can only exist wit congress’s approvalMoney can only be spent with Congress’s authorizationFunds can only be spent when they are appropriatedCongress has lessened appropriations committees’ power three waysCreated trust fundsChanged authorization from permanent or multiyear to annualCutsMake use of legislative vetoInvestigationsCriticismsAppropriation is often less than authorized amountCongress may be in conflictCuts can be made without regard to meritNeeds law that clearly states what agency can and cannot do
9 Kick start of the Bureaucracy in America The greatest increase of bureaucracy in America was seen fromThis was a result of WWII and the New DealUnder the New Deal programs, the government got bigger, because it needed people to run the new agenciesEx. in response to 9/11 the Department of Homeland Security was created
10 Four Types of Agencies Cabinet Power is delegated to the cabinet officials, who then oversee departments and agenciesThese people oversee bureaucratic operations and advise the president
11 Four Types of Agencies Staff Made up of the heads of the 15 cabinet departments and all of the people employed by the cabinet
12 Four Types of Agencies Independent Agencies Resemble Cabinet departments, but smaller and less complexFree only in sense that they are not a part of a departmentEx. NASA
13 Four Types of Agencies Government Corporations Stand on their own Ex. USPS and AmtrakBusinesses created by Congress that charge fees for their services
15 Bureaucratic Agencies National Institutes of HealthEnvironmental Protection AgencyFederal Bureau of InvestigationArmed forcesCoast GuardCentral IntelligenceFederal Reserve BankExport-Import BankSecurities and Exchange CommissionFDADepartment of JusticeAnd HUNDREDS more
16 Efforts to Curtail the Bureaucracy Pendleton ActResponse to abuse of spoils systemAssassination of Garfield highlighted itLed to merit systemMerit systemHire based on skill, not party politicsTry to limit hiring of people by political favoritism
17 Iron Triangle Iron Triangle aka sub government aka power elite Made up of interest groups, agency bureaucrats, and members of congressional subcommitteesUnites a particular government bureau, its relevant interest group, and congressional supportersUltimate goal is to have power in own sphereEx. AARP, the House Subcommittee on Aging, and the Social Security Administration working to set government policy on Social Security
18 Iron Triangle Benefits Can get important and relevant laws introduced All parties benefit from arrangementConsequencesCan become corruptCan monopolize the policy-making process of the governmentFocuses only on group interests, not larger population of the country
19 Hatch ActPassed 1939Federal employees cannot be involved in party activities once hiredEx. Cannot run, raise funds for party/candidate, or become officers in political organizations or a delegate to a party conventionHatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993Still cannot run in partisan elections, but can work off duty on campaigns of candidate of choiceDefinition: severely limited political activities of federal bureaucrats. Revised in 1993 to allow them to do most political activities.
20 Words to knowSpoils system- system of public employment based on rewarding party supporters and friendsMerit system- system of public employment based where selection and promotion depend on performance rather than political supportPrivatization- transferring ownership of a business from public sector (government) to private sector