2PersuasionThe process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions.It involves directing, guiding, or appealing to thethinking, logic or emotions of an individual or an audience.Persuasive speech in public speaking is the art ofusing words to influence an audience.(Refer MLK speech)
3The Goal is …to get the audience to take action with regard to a particular issue. That action may be as simple as changing their way of thinking on a topic or as complicated as following an action plan.to help the listeners to accept the idea, attitude, or action being presented by the speaker. It is accomplished by the use of argumentation, rationalization, symbolism, and presenting supportive information.The Goal of Persuasive Speech is to Get Your MWR.
4Persuasion involves any movement by a listener from left to right Degrees of PersuasionStrongly OpposedModerately OpposedSlightly OpposedNeutralSlightly in FavorModerately in FavorStrongly in FavorPersuasion involves any movement by a listener from left to right
5Contrast between Informative & Persuasive Persuasive speaking urges us to choose from among options, informative speaking reveals and clarifies options.Persuasive speaking asks the audience for more commitment than does informative speaking.The ethical obligations for persuasive speakers are even greater than for informative speakers.The Persuasive speaker is a leader; the informative speaker is a teacher.Persuasive speaking more often involves emotional appeals that are out of place in speeches to inform.
6How to Choose Persuasive Topics Pick something you feel strongly abt. Brainstorm. Music – why rap music is not as violent as people may think.Pick something controversial – for or against campus-wide smoking ban.Pick a current event. Read a newspaper. Social issue – abandoned newborn babies.Pick a campus or local issue – campus-wide ban on cars.Pick an issue of interest to the audience – cell phones, music downloads, facebook, tuition hikesAvoid tired topics – why you should quit smoking, why you should recycle, why you should donate bloodBe cautious with issues that some audience members might find offensive – race issue
7Think of a topic (10 mins) e Think of a topic (10 mins) e.g Broad topic: Social problem – Abandoned newborn babies
8Persuasive Speech Topics InformPersuadeEntertainPersuasive Speech TopicsArranged marriage leads to a lasting relationship.Are beauty contests harmful?Sex education should/should not be introduced in schools.Video games do/do not promote violence.Exams give no real indication of ability.Boarding school is/is not beneficial to children.National service should/should not be made compulsory.Gangsterism is greatly influenced by violence shown on television.Genetically modified (GM) foods should /should not be introduced.Should mothers stay home and raise children?Is sports really good for us?University students should be actively involved in charity/volunteer work.
9Write out your topic in a statement form (5 mins) e Write out your topic in a statement form (5 mins) e.g Baby hatches should be set up nationwide to curb problem of abandoned babies.
10Specific Purpose Statement A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
11Examples of SP statements To convince my audience there should be tougher enforcement laws to protect the victims of domestic abuse.To convince my audience that drinking tea benefits our body.To persuade my audience to register in a public speaking course.To persuade my audience that BK burgers contain less fat than McD burgers.To convince my audience that violence on television is a major cause of violent behavior in society.To persuade my audience that university students should be actively involved in charity/volunteer work.
12Central Idea/Thesis Statement A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech. Usually found in the introduction of your sentence.
13Persuasive Speech Topics How to go from Informative Speech Topic to Persuasive Speech Topic?Broad: Social problem – Abandoned newborn babiesInformative: To inform my audience the reasons/causes for the increasing rate of newborn babies being abandoned.CI: lack of parental guidance, lack of spiritual guidance and peer influence.Persuasive: To persuade my audience that The Women, Family and Community Development Ministry should set up baby hatches nationwide.CI: Baby hatches save lives, offer practical solution and offer timely solution.
14GROUPWORK: Based on the topics below, come up with the SP and CI statements. Benefits of learning another language.Junk food – Killing ourselves with kindness.Arranged marriage leads to a lasting relationship.Sex education should/should not be allowed in schools.Video games do/do not promote violence.Exams give no real indication of ability.Boarding school is/is not beneficial to children.Why we should recycle.Why we should donate blood.National service should/should not be made compulsory.Gangsterism is greatly influenced by violence shown on television.Genetically modified (GM) foods should /should not be introduced.
15Types of Persuasive Speeches Questions of factQuestions of valueQuestions of policy
16Questions of FactThis refers to something that we can know to be either true orfalse, but right now we can argue about it. Includes historicalcontroversy, predictions, or questions of existence.Examples:To persuade my audience that GM crops pose serious dangers.To persuade my audience that TV violence causes real world violence.To persuade my audience that Oswald acted alone when assassinating President John F. Kennedy.
17Question of Fact General Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that genetically engineered cropspose serious dangers.Central Idea: Genetically engineered crops have the potential to create majorenvironmental, health and …… hazards.Main Points:Genetically engineering crops will create environmental havoc by harming beneficial insects while creating superbugs and superweeds that will be very difficult to control.Genetically engineered crops will create health problems by introducing harmful toxins and allergens into foods without the knowledge of consumers.….
18Question of Fact General Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that poaching of wild animals is a serious international problem.Central Idea: Poaching is threatening the survival of animal species throughoutthe African, Asian and American continents.Main Points:In Africa, poaching has claimed thousands of leopards, cheetahs, rhinoceroses, and elephants.In Asia, poaching has all but eliminated the Bengal tigers, snow leopards and musk deer.In the American continents, poaching has driven jaguars , bald eagles, grizzly bears and timber wolves to the brink of extinction.
19Questions of ValueA question about the worth, rightness, morality of an idea oraction.Examples:To persuade my audience that capital punishment is legally and morally wrong.To persuade my audience that Pepsi is better than Coke.To persuade my audience that arranged marriage leads to a lasting relationship.
20Question of Value General Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong.Central Idea: Capital punishment violates both the Bible and the U.S. Constitution.Main Points:Capital punishment violates the biblical commandment “Thou shalt not kill.”Capital punishment violates the constitutional ban on “ cruel and unusual punishment.”
21Question of ValueGeneral Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that bicycle riding is the ideal form of land transportation. Central Idea: Bicycle riding is the ideal form of land transportation because it is faster than walking or running, does not exploit animals or people, is non-polluting, and promotes the health of the rider. Main Points: I. II. III.
22Questions of PolicyA question about whether a specific course of action should orshould not be taken.Examples:To persuade my audience that radio stations should play 30% of its music content local music.To persuade my audience that action should be taken now to solve the nation’s shortage of nurses.To persuade my audience that tougher enforcement laws should be enforced on child abusers.
23Question of PolicySpecific Purpose: To persuade my audience that action should be taken now to solve the nation’s shortage of nurses. Main Points: I. The shortage of nurses has become a serious national problem. II. The problem can be solved by offering nurses better salaries and better working conditions.
24Organizing Your Main Points - Policy Problem (No Solution) PatternArrangement that focuses on the depth and breadth of a problem in order to convince listeners it is a serious problem. Useful for claims of fact focused on the present or future. Good choice when your target audience is uncertain or opposed to your position.Problem/Solution PatternAn arrangement pattern organized around two points – problem and solution. The problem illustrates what you believe is wrong with the present conditions and why. The solution should be multifaceted – what listeners should do personally as well as what should be done on a larger scale.Problem/Cause/SolutionA main point arrangement based on three points – problem, cause, and solution.The problem (first point) and solution (third point) points are the same as in the Problem/Solution pattern. The cause (second) point analyzes underlying reasons for why the problem exists.
25Problem-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that they should sign universal organ donor cards. Central Idea: We can take a step toward solving the serious shortage of organ donors in the United States by signing universal organ donor cards. Main Points: I. There is a serious shortage of healthy organs available for transplant. II. By signing a universal organ donor card you can help solve this problem.
26Problem-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that action is needed to deal with the safety problems caused by motorists’ use of cell phones. Main Points: I. The use of cell phones by motorists is causing a growing number of accidents. II. The problem can be solved by a combination of individual and government action.
27Problem-Cause-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the government must increase its efforts to counter-act global warming. Central Idea: The effects of global warming are catastrophic, but by understanding what is causing this condition, the government can create policies that can reverse these effects. Main Points: I. Scientists agree that a general warming of the earth's atmosphere would lead to devastating effects on the environment. II. There are several factors responsible for global warming. III. Government policies directed at industry and individuals can mitigate the effects of global warming.
28Problem-Cause-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that colleges should take stronger action to control campus crime. Central Idea: Main Points: I. Crime on college campuses is a serious problem. II. There are three major causes for the growth of campus crime. III. An effective solution must deal with all three causes of the problem.
301. Structural Techniques Formats or Outlines . Set yourself above the ordinary. Choose an outline that which 'sells' your premise or your product. Try telling a story, debate the pros and cons with yourself, do a series of affirmations. Be aware of what your audience will best relate to.Look for common grounds.Include a statement such as, "I know that all of us can agree that preventing unwanted pregnancies is important." By doing so, you reach out to people on the other side and demonstrate that you're not the enemy-- and then they'll be more likely to listen to you.Lead them with logic. Develop your point step-by-step. Material can be organized in a variety of formats, from the traditional 1., 2., 3., approach to a time line, to a series of causes and effects. What is important is to regularly, and, blatantly, let the audience know where you are, and, where you are going.
322. Credibility ElementsAuthorities Quoting recognized authorities in your topic area verifies that you have both done your homework, and, also, know what you are talking about.Document your factual information and references. Never leave an audience member questioning where you got your facts...which means he or she is questioning the fact itself.Experience When you speak, you need to be regarded as an authority. Your experience is one of the primary things that give you standing in the eyes of your listeners. Use phrases as, "in my 15 year's of working in this field", or, " each of the dozen times we have run this project."
33Three Appeals of Reason 1. Ethos stands for credibility. Establish yourself as someone who is credible in their eyes, it will be easy to persuade them to feel as you do. How? Through your experience, facts presented and authorities/experts quoted.
34Pathos, or emotional persuasion is simply a way of appealing to somebody's emotions in order to convince them of your argument. (Refer MLK speech)
353. Logos speaking has to do with persuading someone through the use of logic. How? One of the most effective ways is by developing a coherent speech that moves logically through the subject …use suitable transitions/discourse markers/linkers. If you keep your audience in mind and develop a good argument, they will be able to follow it to its natural conclusion.
36Example …The abandoned body of a newborn baby girl laid motionless in a heap of garbage. Ants have already began to swarm over the little body. This grim picture of a newborn baby or foetus being abandoned in toilets, rubbish dumps, garbage bins and rivers – many of them already dead – is no longer an unfamiliar scene in our society today. According to a statistics from the Bukit Aman police head-quaters 580 babies and foetus were abandoned between 2000 and What about those who have been successfully disposed without a trace? What about the illegal abortions in private clinics? The question is, do we want to continue to see innocent newborn babies being left for dead or can we offer practical solutions to this serious problem?
373. Openings & Closings Openings Tell them why they should listen. Closings Don't just quit! The closing must have a clear cut call to action that prods listeners to do what you want.Work the group to a conclusion and then ask them for some response.The concluding paragraphs of the speech should always have a certain specific action that you would like the audience to perform.Examples:"Now, that you know how dire the situation is, and how little time we have, what are you going to do to help us make a difference in these children‘s lives?""Now you know the problem, can we count on you to help with the project?"
384. Words, Phrases & Sentences The basic rule of thumb for this very extensive topic is to keep your language concrete, descriptive and clear.Sticking to the active voice.Say, " we found a problem" rather than "it was brought to our attention that there was a problem." Instead of saying, "We have been told of a solution," say "We have a solution."Inclusiveness Refer to our team, working with them, all of us, together,etc.Win with words. Surveys show that people respond well to particular words such as "improved", "natural", "pure", "tested' and "recommended". Cut down the use of words like "maybe", "might", "possibly", etc. Instead, use powerful positive phrases like "we will" and "we must" that convey purposeful action.
395. Mood SwingsMatch every facet of your presentation to the mood. A presenter's credibility is suspect when he or she talks about a tragic situation while grinning broadly. The audience is also totally confused when we speak of undertaking a project with enthusiasm and vigor while we are drooping across the stage.
406. ChoreographyTo get your audience members to react to your text, you will need a variety of dynamics.Physical – move around, raise and lower your voice, use pace and pause, involve the audience, use hand gestures, use props.Psychological – do not be afraid to show a little emotion. Your body and voice must match the tone of your words. If your language is strong, you must present a physical force to go along with your delivery. Let the words speak for themselves; reflect their nature through your voice. If you use the word "strangle," say it with a hint of menace in your voice.