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BIOLOGY I Exploration & Discovery Scientific Method: H O vs. H A Types of Studies: Experimental vs. Observational Bobwhite Quail Eggs: Does Size Matter? Lecture/Lab 01 Althoff

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Scientific Method Observation(s) Question Hypothesis Prediction Test: Experimental or Additional observation Test does _____ support hypothesis: revise hypothesis or pose new one Test does _______ hypothesis: make additional predictions and test them

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Lab handout: Activity 1 Conclusion Experiment Hypothesis Observation (question) Theory

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Some important terms _________ = sample unit left as “normal” or untreated _________ = sample unit that something “different” is done to it At _______ = assumes no bias due to human subjectivity _________ variable = independent variable _________ variable = dependent variable

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Observational vs. Experimental Studies Observational: __________ (usually), trying to determine basics, learn patterns, trends, characteristics Experimental: _________ (usually), have basic knowledge of subject that enables one to “separate” into treatment groups

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Hypothesis H O = _______hypothesis….essentially says “no differences” H A = _________ hypothesis….essentially says “found differences”…with statistical evidence to support that

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Observational vs. Experimental Studies Observational: generally summarize data using ________________ statistics Experimental: determine if differences between treatments are “real” using _______________ statistics

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Statistics Descriptive statistics: ___________________: mean, median, mode __________: range, variance, standard deviation, standard error _____________: correlation (Pearson, Spearman) Inferential statistics: _____________: t-test, F-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), chi-squared non-parametric: sign test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman test Models: Akaikae Information Criterion (AIC), Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

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Quail Eggs: Does ______ Matter? Not all eggs laid are the same….can vary by: 1) weight/mass 2) yolk composition (protein & lipid %) 3) albumen composition (protein & water %) 4) shell thickness

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Quail Eggs: Key components 2 3

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Quail Eggs: Does Size Matter? Normally take __________ to hatch from start of incubation Young born are ________…meaning they are “ready” to go (aka leave nest) within 6-24 hours after hatching Eggs must be kept at 99-100 o F (_____ o F best) for the duration of the incubation period 3 ways for us to “check” on development: 1) _______ eggs (expect weight will decrease) 2) _______ eggs (expect air space to increase) 3) _______ eggs (expect “light”/”dark” areas)

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Quail Eggs: Checking Egg Status Weigh – using digital platform scale

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Quail Eggs: Checking Egg Status Float – in beaker of water ______ Semi-float _______

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Quail Eggs: Checking Egg Status Candling

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The “Study” Design Starting with 100+ eggs Placing in incubator with egg turner

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Basics…. Overall, eggs pre-incubation weighed from 9.6 to 14.1 grams To have “clear separation” of small vs. large eggs, will consider only eggs weight ______g or less as SMALL ______ g or greater as LARGE Response variable: hatch within 24 hours of first hatch (= _____)

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Hypothesis & Statistical Test H 0 - ____________in H24 between small and large eggs H A - _________ in H24 between small and large eggs Evaluate using _________________ ( X 2 ) # ____ Hatch in H24 Small eggs (<11.3) (N = 28) Large eggs (<12.4) (N = 31)

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