Today we will … Objectives/ Agenda Examine progress on campaign finance “reform.” Agenda 1.“The Cost of Campaigns” video 2.Slide notes review 3.Matching activity 4.Quiz 5.HW- Ch. 7 reading questions
Fred Wertheimer in NYTimes Video: The Cost of Campaigns | Democracy21Democracy21 Fred Wertheimer in NYTimes Video: The Cost of Campaigns | Democracy21Democracy21
191317th AmendmentDirect election of Senators. 192019th AmendmentWomen's Suffrage. Expansion of the electorate & importance of the common voter to the overall process Why do we need campaign financing?
1939Hatch ActCongress prohibited contributions to federal candidates from federal workers and contractors & limited individual contributions to $5,000 per year. 1944CIO forms first PACThe CIO (union) formed the first Political Action Committee (PAC) funded through voluntary contributions and not union treasury funds. 1947Taft-Hartley Act Permanent ban on contributions to federal candidates from unions, corporations, and interstate banks. The Early Years
1971Revenue ActEstablished the public financing system for qualifying presidential candidates Paid for by the voluntary $1.00 check off on income tax forms. Also provided $50.00 tax deduction for individual contributions (ended 1978) or $12.50 tax credit, raised to $50.00 in 1978 and eliminated in 1986). 1971FECA(Federal Elections Campaign Act) Required full and timely disclosures, limited some contributions, capped spending, and permitted unions and corporations to form PACs. Leading to Watergate
1974Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) After the Nixon Watergate scandal Congress creates the FEC to enforce the Federal Election Campaign Act provisions. Creates $1,000 individual contribution limit and a $5,000 PAC limit. POST - Watergate.
1976Buckley v. Valeo - Supreme Court ruling that mandatory spending limits violate free speech mandates. 1979FECA Amendments- Package of amendments to the election campaign act allows the use of donations to political parties rather than candidates (soft money) Challenges to FECA LOOPHOLE!
2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act Sponsored by Senators Russell Feingold (D-WI) & John McCain (R-AZ). Revised some of the legal limits of expenditure set in 1974, and prohibited unregulated contributions (soft money) to national political parties. Also defined political ads as "electioneering communications" prohibiting any such ad paid for by a corporation or paid for by an unincorporated entity using any corporate or union funds BCRA – McCain-Feingold Law
2003 Supreme Court Upholds BCRA McConnell v FEC A divided Supreme Court upholds the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, which had been challenged by both parties. The decision preserved the soft money ban and restrictions on political ads, which were the most significant parts of the law. BCRA is Upheld.
2012Citizens United v. FEC The ruling allows corporations and unions to advocate for or against candidates at any time. Two months later, in Speechnow.org v. FEC, an appeals court strikes down limits on contributions to independent-expenditure shops.ruling American Crossroads - American Crossroads American Crossroads - American Crossroads Restore Our Future Restore Our Future Home - Priorities USA Action Home - Priorities USA Action BCRA is dismantled. The Super PAC is born. No limitations on independent expenditures
Match the clues with each of the years. Matching Activity
Use your notes to answer the FRQ. This is your “quiz”. FRQ