# Chapter 14.  What is a population?  A group of individuals of the same species that live in a given area  Area is defined. Ex. Voter population could.

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Chapter 14

 What is a population?  A group of individuals of the same species that live in a given area  Area is defined. Ex. Voter population could be just Spearfish or United States  Population Ecology  Changes in a population and the biotic and abiotic factors that influence those changes

Organism Population Community Ecosystem

 Population density  # ind of a population/ unit area or volume  Clumped dispersion  Uniform dispersion  Random dispersion

a) Clumped b) Uniform c) Random

Maximized rate with perfect conditions Growth rate (G) = rN = average rate of increase per individual in the population X pop size Population size increases exponentially Population can outstrip its resources and crash

Resource availability limits population growth. Population growth following the logistic model stabilizes around the carrying capacity (K) of the environment. G = rN(K-N)/K (K-N)/K = the closer N comes to the carrying capacity, the slower the rate of growth

 A) all of the microorganisms on your skin  B) all of the species of cichlid fish in Lake Victoria  C) all of the students in your classroom  D) all students attending colleges and universities in your state  E) the various plants found in prairies in the western United States

 A) geologists.  B) ecologists.  C) population ecologists.  D) geographers.  E) population geneticists.

 Harvesting crops and hunted species without damaging the resource.  Maintain healthy populations at population sizes that can replace the harvested individuals  Half the carrying capacity is ideal  Very difficult to do, because it is hard to determine K and N  Using water at a rate that allows for recharging and keeping it clean  Again this is very difficult to figure out  Finding renewable energy sources  Integrated pest management  Recycle and reused materials

Cockroach population - influenced by short generation time - high reproductive rate (females lay lots of eggs) Sustainability research helps give insight into how to control populations. - mature female individuals contribute most to population growth - target females for biggest impact

Types of survivorship curves: I = most individuals live to old age II = equal probability of dying through out life span III = rapid die off of young, few individuals live to old age

 A) 0  B) 2  C) 10 to 20  D) 100  E) more than 100

 A) It will decrease by 70%.  B) It will increase by 1%.  C) It will increase by 5%.  D) It will increase by 70%.  E) It will increase by 100%.

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