7 The Need for PMUs Investigation of August 14, 2003 Blackout revealed Lack of Wide Area VisibilityLack of Time Synchronized DataInability to Monitor System Dynamic Behavior in Real-time
8 The Need for PMUs Contd. Wide-Area and Sub-SCADA Visibility Time Synchronization allows Dynamics not visible in SCADAAngular or Dynamic warning signs are usually present before major eventsRecent Major BlackoutsAugust 14th Angular Separation12 Degrees25 Degrees45 Degrees115 Degrees
9 The Need for PMUs Contd.Post Disturbance Analysis of August 10, 1996 BlackoutPMUs allow us to‘see’ the dynamic behavior of the grid which models sometimes incorrectly predict.
10 Synchrophasor Applications Synchrophasors facilitates improvement in Situational Awareness, Modeling Accuracy & System ReliabilityReal-time ApplicationsOff-line ApplicationsWide-Area Visualization & MonitoringFrequency Stability Monitoring & TrendingVoltage Monitoring & TrendingState EstimationOscillation MonitoringResource IntegrationEquipment Failure DetectionPower System Model VerificationEvent Analysis & ReconstructionEquipment Failure DetectionFault LocationBaselining Power System PerformanceLoad Characterization
11 Synchrophasor Applications contd. A Few of the Current ImplementationsCAISO, BPA, AEP incorporating phasor data into State Estimation toolsEntergy used phasor data to manage system separation, islanding and restoration during Gustav (2008)CAISO & ERCOT will be using phasor data to monitor and integrate intermittent generationSCE using phasor data for automated control of SVC for reactive power supportPhasor systems being used for WAMS in North America, Quebec, Brazil, China and Europe
12 Southern Company PMU Locations South HallPlant BowenPlant MillerNorcrossWest McIntoshPlant FarleyPlant HatchThallmanPlant BarryPlant Daniel
13 Southern Company’s PMU Architecture Local PDC and Historian facilitates flexibility, security and data accessibilityHATCHVgθgVeθeVdθdVbθbViθiDANIELSOUTH HALLBOWENMILLERPhasor Data Concentrator (PDC) - LocalRegional PDCVfθfNORCROSSVcθcBARRYVaθaFARLEYTHALMANNVjθjWEST MCINTOSHVhθhLocal HistorianLocal Applications
14 Current Use of PMU dataPost Event Analysis & Model Validation – Transmission PlanningWide Area Monitoring and Situational Awareness – Research
15 Example of Wide-area Monitoring Tool Real-time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS)GAUGES: Quantify the worst performing metricLOCATION INDICATORS: Provide information about specific locations w.r.t. the metricTRAFFIC LIGHTS: Provide status of specific metrics across all locations
16 Synchrophasor Research Project with PNNL: Multi-Variable Statistical Analysis –Identifying atypical events and precursors to proactively manage the gridAREVA PMU Project: Impact of PMU data on State Estimation & State Estimation MetricsNEETRAC Project: Next Generation PMUs/EvaluationCEATI: Prediction of Power System Instability based on PMU data: Utilizing the Region of Stability Existence (ROSE) Approach.Provide Operators with fast and accurate solutions in order to predict system instability and prevent wide-spread blackouts using PMU data.
17 Demonstration Project w/ GaTech Distributed State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability MonitoringDistributed State Estimator for two substation subsystemDevelop Generator parameter Estimator for a generating unitDevelop transient stability monitoring system for generating plant
19 PMU Activities in North America North American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI)SPDC evolving to regional PDCsPhasorGateway – Communications & Traffic Management InfrastructureTremendous boost from ARRA fundingNASPI Structure
20 Recommended Industry Deployment Roadmap Where Are We Going?1. Angle/Freq. Monitoring12. Post-mortem Analysis2. Voltage Stability Monitoring5. State Estimation (Improv.)13. Model Benchmarking;Parameter Estimation16. DG/IPP Applications11. Power system restoration10. Congestion management14. Model Benchmarking; Parameter Estimation15. Planned Power SystemSeparation6. State Estimation(Boundary Conditions)7. State Measurement (linear)4. Real-Time Control9. Adaptive Protection8. WA Stabilization (WA-PSS)NecessaryAdditional BenefitsMore InvestigationRole of PMUs1-3 Years3-5 Years> 5 YearsRecommended Industry Deployment Roadmap3. Thermal Overload MonitoringCIEE Report
21 SGIG PMU Projects Project Lead # of PMU (Stations) Key Applications ISO New England30Real-time situational awareness, Congestion managementNew York ISO39Real-time situational awareness, Voltage monitoring and controlCommunications systemPJM Interconnection80+Real-time situational awareness including trending, Oscillation detection, Islanding detectionMidwest ISO150+Real-time situational awareness, Voltage monitoringRenewable integration, Congestion management, State estimation, Oscillation monitoring, EMS alarmsWestern Electric Coordinating Council250+Wide-area real-time situational awareness and visualization, Alarming, Oscillation monitoring, Voltage monitoring, Renewable integration, Congestion management, Automatic controls, Power system performance analysis, System-wide model validation, Post-event analysisEntergy Services18Increase grid monitoring, train and educate grid operators and engineers on phasor technologyDuke Energy102Wide-area real-time situational awareness, enhanced state estimator and Renewables integration
22 What Do We Need Now?Demarcation where currents tools end and PMU tools beginDevelopment and Deployment of ApplicationsPractical tools for OperatorsActionable Information‘Killer Apps’Knowledge/Experience from SGIG implementationsMore Research