Presentation on theme: "B General Aircraft Descriptions and Limitations"— Presentation transcript:
1 B747-200 General Aircraft Descriptions and Limitations The mid-1960s saw the development and introduction of many new jetliners. None, however,has matched the dramatic impact of the 747. Increasingly crowded skies and the availability oflarge-thrust engines added to the incentive for creating the giant 747. It all began with the ,the first in the 747 Classics series, which also includes the -200 and -300 modelsAlthough the was developed after the , it was built during roughly the same time frame.The first -200 went into commercial service in 1971, and Boeing delivered a total of 393, the last in 1991.Although its external appearance is nearly identical to the , it was designed to carry more payload.In addition to being offered as a passenger airplane, the -200 was the first 747 to be configured as afreighter, a combination passenger-freighter and a convertible.Aircraft GeneralOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
2 Our First Aircraft, N706BL was originally owned and operated by Northwest Airlines As you can see the delivery date was May 25, 1979 and was registered as N623USThe First Flight Date was In November of 1979, and was later stored November 2009.Plane age: 32.7 yearsBoeing MSN Airline - Baltia Air Lines Status : Active Registration : N706BL Serial number: LN:374Type: BOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
3 195 Ft. 8 In. 63 Ft. 5 In. 231 Ft. 10 In. 72 Ft. 9 In. 36 Ft. 2 In. Eye Level – 27 Ft. 11 In.Approx.81 Ft.9 In.Basic Dimensions Wing Span 195 ft 8 in (59.6 m) Overall Length 231 ft 10.2 in (70.6 m) Tail Height 63 ft 5 in (19.3 m) Interior Cabin Width 20 ft (6.1 m)Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
5 Doors & Structure Main Entry Doors Description There are five main entry doors on each side of the aircraft. The doors are designated 1L through 5L and 1Rthrough 5R.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
6 Aircraft Deck Structure Main Deck Cabin CompartmentLWR Aft Cargo CompartmentBulk Cargo Compartment*LWR Forward Cargo CompartmentCockpit Upper Deck*E & E Compt.L1 DoorL5 Door* Areas can be accessed in FlightAft Cargo DoorBulk Cargo DoorForward Cargo DoorCrew Service Door (200)
7 Mechanically locked, and depressurized. The steering system of the 747 incorporates steering of the main body gear in addition to nose gear steering.This body gear steering system is hydraulically actuated and programmed electrically to provide steering ratiosproportionate to the nose gear steering angles. During Takeoff and landing, the body gear steering system is centered,Mechanically locked, and depressurized.Steering of the main body gear has the following advantages over ground maneuvering without this steering feature- overall improved maneuverability, including improved nose gear tracking- elimination of the need for differential braking during ground turns with subsequent reduced brake wear- reduced thrust requirements- lower main gear stress levels, and,- reduced tire wearOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
8 Turning Radius With Body Gear Steering 153’90’14’59’61’96’92’21’39’Turning Radius With Body Gear SteeringLooking now at the relationship between nose gear steering and the aircraft turn radius we see the turncenter passes through the wing landing gears when the body gear steering is operatingWith the minimum turning radius with the body gear steering operating:•The nose gear is deflected approximately 70 degrees.•No differential braking is used and thrust is symmetrical.Notice that the wingtip antenna swings out 14 feet and that you can't turn around on a150 foot wide runway.Taxi speed, gross weight, runway conditions will all affect the turn radius and locationof the turn center. Therefore, good technique dictates that you use the maximum width available as use of theminimum width will cause excessive tire slippage and scrubbing.Turning radius = 153 ft when body gear steering is operating normallyOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
9 Turning Radius Without Body Gear Steering 170’87’11’57’70’100’22’107’50’Turning Radius Without Body Gear SteeringWith the body gear steering not operating the turn center passes approximately halfway between the wing gear and body gear.When the body gear steering is deactivated, the minimum turning radius increases significantly.Note that the runway width increases from 153 feet to 170 feet.In this drawing the turn was initiated at 10 knots with no braking and differentialThereforeTurning radius = 170 ft when body gear steering is inopOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
11 AOM v2Each plug-type Main Entry Door is pressure sealed. Main entry doors are opened manually. A window allows visualinspection of the immediate area surrounding the door.An amber LEFT ENTRY DR or RIGHT ENTRY DR annunciator light on the Flight Engineer door annunciatorpanel illuminates when a door is not closed and latched.In the MANUAL mode, the pneumatic assist system is disarmed and the girt bar is not attached to the floorbrackets. The door is normally opened and closed in the MANUAL mode.When the external handle is used to open the door, the mode selector lever is automatically repositionedfrom AUTOMATIC to MANUAL.Main entry doorsOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
12 Flight Deck Door Original 05 May 98 Revised 08 Feb 99 AOM v2 The passenger aircraft flight deck door meets requirements for resistance to ballistic penetration and intruderentrance. The flight deck door is hinged on the right outboard side and opens into the flight deck. Whenclosed, the door locks when electrical power is available and automatically unlocks when electrical power islost or removed. A viewing lens in the door allows observation of the passenger cabin. The door can bemanually opened from the flight deck by turning the door handle.The door incorporates a deadbolt with a key lock. Rotating both concentric deadbolt levers to the locked(horizontal) position prevents the passenger cabin key from unlocking the door. Rotating only the forwarddeadbolt lever to the locked position allows the passenger cabin key to unlock the door.The door also incorporates an electrical lock which is controlled by the Flight Deck Door Access System. Thedoor can be opened anytime from the flight deck. However, when locked, entry of an access code isnecessary to open the door from the passenger cabin side.The flight deck access system consists of a keypad access panel, a chime module, a Door Control switch,two indicator lights, and an Access System switch. The access panel includes a six button keypad forentering the numeric normal or emergency access code along with red, amber, and green lights. The redlight is disabled. When the correct access code is entered, the amber light illuminates. The green lightilluminates to indicate the door is unlocked. Two annunciator lights and a three position switch are located onthe P5 overhead panel.The remote FLT DK DOOR REL switch on the overhead panel has been disabled.The emergency access code is used to gain access to the flight deck in case of pilot incapacitation.Annunciation of a flight deck buzzer and illumination of the amber AUTO UNLK light indicates the correctemergency access code has been entered and the door is programmed to unlock after a time delay.Selecting the DENY position on the Door Lock selector denies entry and prevents further keypad entry for 15minutes. To allow entry, the selector is turned to the UNLKD position which unlocks the door while held inthat position. If the emergency access code is entered and the pilot takes no action, the door unlocks afterexpiration of the time delay. Before the door unlocks, the chime sounds continuously and the AUTO UNLKlight flashes.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
13 Crew Service Door CREW SERVICE DOOR AOM v2 Crew Service Door This door is a single width, plug-type, pressure sealed door on a track system. A window allows visualinspection of the immediate area surrounding the door. The door is equipped with a singe lane, manuallydeployed slide.Cabin DoorsTen main entry doors, five on each side, provide a means of evacuating the aircraft during an emergency.Each door is equipped with an evacuation slide.
14 Upper Deck Crew Service Door Cockpit Escape Hatch Location Doors & StructureUpper Deck Crew Service Door(RH Side only)Cockpit Escape Hatch Location
15 NOTE: There is No cockpit indication Cockpit Escape HatchAOM v2Emergency Overhead Escape HatchDescriptionThe emergency escape hatch is located on the left ceiling of the flight deck. A sound proofing cover is held inplace by velcro to minimize air noise associated with this door.It is a plug-type, pressure sealed door which opens into the flight deck when unlatched. The hatch isOperable from inside or outside the aircraft. There is no annunciator light associated with this door.WARNING: AN ESCAPE REEL MUST BE USED WHEN EVACUATING THE AIRCRAFT VIA THE ESCAPE HATCH.NOTE: There is No cockpit indicationfor this escape hatchOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
16 Cargo Compartment Doors AOM v2Cargo Compartment DoorsDescriptionThere are three cargo compartment doors located on the right side of the aircraft:• forward cargo compartment door (non-plug type)• aft cargo compartment door (non-plug type)• bulk cargo compartment door (plug type)FORWARDCARGODOORAFTCARGODOORBULKCARGODOOR
17 Forward Cargo Door HINGE LATCH LOCK HANDLE NEGATIVE PRESSURE AOM v2Forward and Aft Cargo Compartment DoorsEach door is normally opened, closed, and latched using electrical power [from the ground handling bus]. Ifrequired, the doors can be operated manually by means of a built-in manual drive fitting and an externalportable tool.These doors open outward and the master latch-lock handle is used to operate the negative pressure reliefdoors and lock/unlock the latches.Wind Limitations40 knots for door operation65 knots with a door openHINGELATCH LOCKHANDLENEGATIVE PRESSURERELIEF DOOR (2)EXTERNALDOORCONTROLSVIEW PORTS (8)
19 Bulk Cargo Door AOM v2 Bulk Cargo Door This door is a manually operated, plug-type pressure sealed door. The amber BULK CARGO DRannunciator light on the Flight Engineer door annunciator panel illuminates when the door is not closed andlatched.
20 Electric Service Doors DescriptionThe electrical service doors are pressure sealed, plug-type doors which can be operated from inside oroutside the aircraft. They are located on the lower fuselage and allow access to the:• main electric center• center electric centerThe associated MN ELEC SERV DR or CTR ELEC SERV DR amber annunciator light on the Flight Engineerdoor annunciator panel illuminates when either door is not closed and latched.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
21 Miscellaneous Doors EXTERIOR POWER RECXEPTACLE FWD POTABLE WATER SERVICE ACCESS DOORCENTER LAVATORYSERVICE DOORDescriptionMiscellaneous doors include the equipment access and exterior service doors.Equipment Access DoorsEquipment access doors include:• APU access door• APU battery access door• air conditioning doorsThese doors are outward opening doors and enclose unpressurized areas.Exterior Service DoorsExterior service doors are generally small, outward opening doors operable from outside the aircraft. Thesedoors include:• external power receptacle door• forward, center, and aft lavatory service doors• potable water service doors (2)FWD ELECTRONICSDOORAFT POTABLE WATERSERVICE ACCESS DOORFWD LAVATORYSERVICE DOORCENTER ELECTRONICSDOORAIR CONDITIONINGACCESS PANELSAND DOORSAPU ACCESSDOORSGROUND AIRCONDITIONINGACCESS DOORAPU BATTERYACCESS DOOROriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
23 Cockpit Layout AOM v2 PILOTS’ STATIONS 1) Overhead Circuit Braker Panel - P1262) Overhead Circuit Braker Panel - P123) Overhead Circuit Braker Panel - P74) Overhead Panel - P55) Auto Flight Control Panel (MCP) - P106) Center Instrument Panel - P27) Landing Gear Control Panel - P338) Sun Visor9) Main Instrument Lightshield Panel (Copilot) - P7210) Approach Chart Holder11) Copilots Auxiliary - Aft Panel - P2312) Copilots Auxiliary - Lower Panel - P4513) Copilots Instrument Panel - P314) Control Stand - P815) Forward Electronic Control Panel - P916) Pilots Instrument Panel - P117) Pilots Auxiliary - Lower Panel - P4418) Observers Panels - P1119) Pilots Auxiliary - Aft Panel - P2120) Main Instrument Lightshield Panel (Pilot) - P72
24 Black Crosses on L & R Windshield Brace Eye Position LocatorsBlack Crosses on L & R Windshield BraceAOM v2Eye Position Indicators provide a means to achieve a consistent sight picture to provide,Optimum over-the-nose visibility.Full scan of instruments & flags.Put seat back at or near vertical, adjust vertical height then fore-&-aft position.Seat belts and shoulder harnesses must be fastened prior to Pushback, Taxi, Takeoff & Landing.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
25 Cockpit Windows Forward windows – Thick laminated acrylic and hardened glass.Side windows –Acrylic and vinyl laminate.Single layer of acrylic will hold full cabin pressure.Window heat is not required for bird strike protection.L1 & R1 window heat provides anti-ice & defogging, rest defogging only.AOM v2Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
26 Flight Engineer Station AOM v222-FE UPPER INST PNL - P423-FE UPPER INST PNL - P424 – ESCAPE DEVICES – INIERTIAL REELS25-FE OXY REGULATOR & MASK26 –SMOKE GOGGLES27 MAIN PWR CIRCUIT BREAKER28 –MAIN AC DIST CIRCUIT BREAKER PNLS29 –P6 AUX PNLS30 –FE LWR INST PNL P-431 –MAIN DC DIST PNL32 –FE LWR INST PNL CTR – P-433 AUX PNL P-434 FE LWR INST PNL – LEFT P-4
27 SERVICING PORTS EXTERIOR POWER RECXEPTACLE FWD POTABLE WATER SERVICE ACCESS DOORCENTER LAVATORYSERVICE DOORAOM v2FWD ELECTRONICSDOORAFT POTABLE WATERSERVICE ACCESS DOORFWD LAVATORYSERVICE DOORCENTER ELECTRONICSDOORAIR CONDITIONINGACCESS PANELSAND DOORSAPU ACCESSDOORSGROUND AIRCONDITIONINGACCESS DOORAPU BATTERYACCESS DOOROriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
28 Servicing PortsAOM v2During turnaround at the terminal, certain services must be performed on the aircraft, usually within a given time to meet flight schedules.This slide simply shows service vehicle arrangements at typical service pointsOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
29 Seating Configuration Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
30 Emergency EquipmentAOM v2Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
34 Emergency Overhead Escape hatch AOM V2 6.5 & 6.7Emergency Overhead Escape HatchThe emergency overhead escape hatch is a small, plug-type, pressure sealed door located on the left ceilingof the flight deck.OperationTo operate the hatch from inside the aircraft:• remove the sound proof cover• rotate the handle to the UNLOCK position• pull the hatch into the flight deckEvacuation Escape DevicesEscape ReelFive emergency escape reels are stowed above the second officer panel. These inertial reel/brake units areused for emergency evacuation from the flight deck through the overhead escape hatch.To use the escape reel:• remove the reel from the stowage bracket• climb out through the overhead escape hatch• grasp the reel handle with both hands, face away from the aircraft, and begin descent to the ground[The initial rate of descent is approximately 16 feet per second, reduced by the braking device toapproximately 6 feet per second near the ground].
35 Cabin Emergency Lighting AOM V2 6.15Cabin Emergency LightingCabin interior emergency lighting consists of main cabin door, aisle, cross aisle, exit, and escape path lights.EXIT signs are located on the flight attendant overhead panels and light coves adjacent to each main entrydoor and upper deck.
36 Cabin Floor Level Emergency Escape Path Lighting AOM V2 6.16A. Cabin Floor Level Emergency Escape Path LightingThe cabin floor level emergency escape path lighting is installed on the cabin aisles. The escape route ismarked with white lights spaced at short intervals along the aisle. Each exit is marked by four closely spacedred lights interrupting the row of white lights and an exit marker light sign located on the sidewall at floor levelbeside the exit.On the upper deck and forward of doors 1L and 1R illuminated arrows indicate the direction to the nearestexit.ction
37 Crew Service Door Slide ESCAPE SLIDEPACKMANUAL INFLATIONHANDLECHUTECREW SERVICE DOOR SLIDE - LATER AIRCRAFTCrew Service Door Slide - Later AircraftPack board manual release handle on left sideManual Inflation HandleAssist HandleASSIST HANDLEFLOOR TRACKRELEASEFLOOR RAMPFLOOR TRACKSPACKBOARD MANUALRELEASE HANDLE
38 Crew Service Slide Operation CREW SERVICE SLIDE OPERATION - LATER AIRCRAFTCrew Service Slide Operation - Later AircraftPull slide Deployment Release (T-Handle)Replaces snow shovelPush slide out doorShould automatically inflate.Push manual inflation handle regardless of success of auto inflation.
39 Exterior Emergency Lighting AOM V2 6.16Exterior emergency lighting is provided for overwing escape routes and exterior slide areas.
40 Evacuation Slide / Rafts AOM V2 6.8Evacuation Slide/RaftsGeneral The aircraft is equipped with:• one single lane evacuation slide on the upper deck• eight dual lane slide/rafts on the main deck• two ramp slides on the main deck
41 Single Lane Evacuation Slide AOM v2 6.9Single Lane Evacuation SlideA single lane evacuation slide is provided at the crew service door. The slide is in a self-contained unitmounted on tracks. It can be moved aft to clear the doorway for aircraft servicing; however, it must bepositioned and locked in front of the crew service door for flight. For evacuation, open the crew service doorand slide it aft on its tracks. Release the slide pack and push the entire container out the door. As the slidedeploys It automatically inflates. If the automatic system fails, a manual inflation handle is provided for use.NOTEThere are two types of slide containers. One has the pack boardrelease handle on the left side. The other type of slide container hasa pawl lock handle in the center. Both types of containers house asingle lane slide.
42 Dual Lane Slide / Rafts AOM v2 6.10 Dual Lane Slide/Rafts Dual lane slide/rafts are stowed behind a protective cover (bustle) on doors 1L and 1R, 2L and 2R, 4L and4R, and 5L and 5R. Each slide/raft assembly is designed to serve as a slide in a ground evacuation, and asa raft in a ditching situation.When the door is opened in the AUTOMATIC mode, the slide/raft is deployed and should automaticallyinflate. If automatic inflation fails, a red manual release pull strap, located at the girt bar, allows for manualinflation.When ditching, directions for disconnecting the raft from the aircraft are stenciled on the flap at the girt bar.Slide/rafts are not “either-side-up”. If a slide/raft capsizes, righting handles are provided on the bottom forturning the slide/raft over. Boarding stirrups and handles are also provided to aid in boarding the raft from thewater.[The slide/rafts at doors 1L and 1R, 2L and 2R, 4L and 4R are 60 person capacity rafts. The slide/rafts atdoors 5L and 5R are 56 person capacity rafts. All slide/rafts have an overload capacity].
43 Over-wing Ramp/Slide AOM V2 6.11 Over wing Ramp/Slide Main entry doors 3L and 3R (over wing exits) have a one piece ramp with a two lane off-wing slide assemblystowed in an enlarged compartment (bustle) in the door. The slides are intended for use during a groundevacuation and are not rafts.When door 3L or 3R is opened in the AUTOMATIC mode, the one piece ramp and off-wing slide aredeployed and automatically inflated. If automatic inflation fails, a red manual release pull strap located at thegirt bar allows for manual inflation.In a gear up landing or when ditching, the door 3 mode selector lever is placed in the MANUAL position. Thisaction deactivates the ramp and off-wing slide assembly preventing the unit from deploying and interferingwith the operation of the door 4 slide. Doors 3L and 3R still serve as overwing emergency exits, but life raftsare not available.
44 Raft Survival Equipment AOM V2 6.12Raft Survival EquipmentEach slide/raft is equipped with a survival kit containing an assortment of first aid supplies and a utility kit.The utility kit contains:• day-night flares• water activated flashlight• signal mirror• whistle• sponge• pen knife• survival manual• drinking water• hole plugs• sea dye marker• bailing bucket• water purification tablets• plastic sacks for rain water and drinking cups (Air Cruiser rafts only)• first aid kit• "Charms" type candyA canopy is provided to protect the occupants from over exposure from the sun and inclement weather.
45 Evacuation Emergency Lighting AOM V2 6.13Evacuation Emergency LightingEmergency LightingLoss of essential DC electrical power automatically activates interior and exterior emergency lighting. Powerfor the emergency lights is provided by self contained batteries, recharged by the aircraft electrical system.Positive control is provided independently by the EMERGENCY EXIT LIGHT switch on the flight deckoverhead panel or by the EMERGENCY LIGHTS switch on the Steward panel at door 1L.
46 Evacuation After Ditching Each crewmember must have his evacuation assignment committed to memory.The Captain is to ensure that the command to evacuate and any other specific instructions are issuedAn evacuation must not be initiated while the airplane is moving.The suitability of an exit should be evaluated before it is used.If possible, persons should board directly from the airplane into the life rafts.The first capable person to board the raft should assist in boardingAOM V1 3.10Each crewmember must have his evacuation assignment committed to memory. The need for most emergencyevacuations comes about with little or no warning. As a result, such an evacuation is conducted without thebenefit of a specific briefing. This means that its success depends on each crewmember's knowledge ofevacuation assignments and related considerations.Whether an evacuation is planned or unplanned, the Captain is to ensure that the command to evacuate and anyother specific instructions are issued to Cabin and ACM/JS as soon as possible.An evacuation must not be initiated while the airplane is moving. When the command to evacuate is given, theevacuation must be conducted aggressively. The hazard to passengers and crew may increase as time passes.Variations from standard procedures should be avoided unless a specific condition clearly indicates a particularcourse of action.The suitability of an exit should be evaluated before it is used. The cabin door(s) are primary. Consider itsrelationship to waves or the waterline.If possible, persons should board directly from the airplane into the life rafts. The importance of doing sodepends on the sea state, the weather, and the extent of personal injuries. Shoes and sharp objects should beremoved prior to boarding the raft. If practical, remove any drinking water, food, first aid kits, and blankets fromthe aircraft and take them into the raft. Evacuees should inflate their life vests as they leave the airplane.The first capable person to board the raft should assist in the boarding of other persons and hold the raft awayfrom damaged aircraft structure. The raft center deck support should be inflated when time permits. The survivalkit should be hauled inside the raft as soon as possible. Persons in the raft should assist other persons to board,preferably at a boarding station. It may be quite difficult for a person to board the raft from the water without help.
47 Raft SeaworthinessPersons in the raft should sit with their backs against the rail and their feet toward the center.When all persons are aboard the raft, the lanyard must be cut.Rafts should be tied together only in a very calm sea.Check pressure of raft tubes; additional manual inflation may be necessary.AOM V1 3.11Persons in the raft should sit with their backs against the rail and their feet toward the center. No one should beallowed to stand. Sharp objects, including shoes, that could damage the raft should be removed if not done soprior to boarding, or otherwise disposed of.Persons should move on hands and knees; unnecessary movement should be restricted.When all persons are aboard the raft, the lanyard must be cut. The sea anchor should be deployed as soon asthe raft has cleared the aircraft and any debris that could puncture the raft. All loose equipment should besecured when it is not in use so that it is not lost or washed overboard.Rafts should be tied together only in a very calm sea. This would provide a larger target for search and rescueunits and permit optimum distribution of rations and equipment. If there is any appreciable wave motion, raftsshould be separated to avoid hazards of collision and upset.Check pressure of raft tubes; additional manual inflation may be necessary. The raft tubes should be firm but notdrum tight.
48 Lower Cargo Doors Annunciator CARGO DOORS Light (Center Glare shield)Indicates the lower fwd or aft cargo doors are NOT closed, latched, and locked.Repeater of FWD or AFT CARGO DR light on S/O panelFWD CARGO DR LightIndicates fwd cargo door is not closed, latched, and locked.AFT CARGO DR LightIndicates the aft cargo door is not closed, latched and locked.
50 Original 05 May 98 Revised 08 Feb 99 Exterior Lighting Overview Exterior lighting includes:• landing• runway turnoff• navigation• anti-collision (beacon)• strobe• wing illuminationLanding LightsTwo landing lights are mounted in the leading edge of each wing near the fuselage.Each landing light is controlled by its respective switch on the overhead panel.Runway Turnoff LightsTwo runway turnoff lights are mounted on the stationary structure of the nose landing gear strut. These lights,which only operate when on the ground, angle outward [approximately 65 degrees] to illuminate the areasurrounding the aircraft.These lights are controlled by switches on the center forward overhead panel.Navigation LightsThere are four navigation lights mounted on the aircraft.• one red light on the left wing tip• one green light on the right wing tip• two white lights on the outboard trailing edge of each horizontal stabilizer (or on the tailcone)These lights are controlled by a NAV switch located on the overhead panel.Anti-Collision LightsRotating anti-collision (beacon) lights are mounted on the top and bottom of the fuselage.These lights are controlled by the BEACON switch on the overhead panel. [During ground operation, thelights automatically dim to half their normal intensity.]Strobe LightsSTROBE lights are on each wing tip and on the tail below the APU exhaust.These lights are controlled by the STROBE switch on the overhead panel.Wing Illumination LightsThe leading edges of the wings and the engine inlets can be illuminated by wing illumination lights mountedin each side of the fuselage.These lights are controlled by the WING switch on the overhead panelService Compartment LightingDescriptionService compartment lighting includes:• nose wheel• main wheel well• main electric center• center electric centerNose Wheel LightingDome lights provide illumination of the nose wheel well area. A toggle switch mounted on the nose wheelwell control panel controls these lights.Main Wheel Well LightingDome lights provide illumination of the main wheel well area. These lights are controlled by switches locatedin the left and right body gear wheel wells.Main Electric Center LightingDome lights are located throughout the main and center electric centers. Some of these lights also serve asflight deck access lights. These lights are controlled by a switch near the main deck access hatch, or a switchin the lower entry hatch to the main electric center.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
51 AIRCRAFT EXTERIOR LIGHTTING All exterior lighting is controlled by switches on the overhead panel.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
52 LIMITATIONSAOM V1Baltia Air Lines will not operate a civil aircraft without complying with the operating limitations specified in theapproved Airplane Flight Manual, markings, and placards, or as otherwise prescribed by the certificating authority ofthe country of registry.In this section, all limitations discussed will be referenced from the1- FAA Approved Flight manual for this aircraft2- AFM Supplemental Type Certificate Limitations which have been found applicable during all operations, and3- Boeing recommended and Baltia Company Limitations which are not otherwise included in a specific procedureOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
53 AIRCRAFT OPERATION (AFM) 14 CFR 121.323(a), 121.323(b), 121.323(c) The aircraft is approved for the following kinds of flight and operation; both day and night, when the required equipment is installed and approved in accordance with the applicable Federal Aviation Regulations: • Visual (VFR) • Instrument (IFR) • Icing Conditions • Extended OverwaterThis aircraft is certified in the Transport Category, FAR Part 25 and FAR Part 36.The aircraft is approved for the following kinds of flight and operation; both day and night, when the requiredequipment is installed and approved in accordance with the applicable Federal Aviation Regulations:• Visual (VFR)• Instrument (IFR)• Icing Conditions• Extended OverwaterThe aircraft instruments and equipment meet the performance standards of Appendix 3 of AC120-29A for CAT IIoperations. (AC120-29A =Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach)(Observe CAT I/CAT II placard on Captain’s instrument panel for applicable aircraft status.)Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
54 Maximum Operating Altitude OPERATIONAL LIMITS (AFM)Maximum operating altitude is 45,100 feet pressure altitude.Maximum takeoff and landing altitude is –1,000 to 10,000 feet pressure altitude.Maximum Runway Slope ± 2%.Takeoff, landing, and en route operational temperature and altitude limits are shown on the Operating Envelope chart to the rightAOM V1 2.24. OPERATIONAL LIMITS (AFM)Maximum operating altitude is 45,100 feet pressure altitude.Maximum takeoff and landing altitude is –1,000 to 10,000 feet pressure altitude.Maximum Runway Slope ± 2%.Takeoff, landing, and enroute operational temperature and altitude limits are shown on the Operating Envelope chart
55 Max APU Operating Altitude • Do not use APU generator power in-flight. • Do not operate APU in-flight in icing conditions. • Do not operate APU above 20,000 feet pressure altitude. • Operation between 15,000 feet and 20,000 feet pressure altitude is limited to "no load" only. • In-flight start of the APU is not authorized.AOM V1 2.5Inflight Operation (AFM)The APU may be used to supply bleed air to air conditioning pack #2 for takeoff (See Takeoff Using APU For AirConditioning alternate procedure), provided the isolation valves remain closed. If an engine failure occurs, do notchange air conditioning bleed configuration until minimum height for obstacle clearance has been achieved.
56 Maximum Allowable Runway Contamination AOM V1Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
57 Limiting tailwind component is 10 knots. WIND LIMITS (AFM)Limiting tailwind component is 10 knots.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
58 CROSSWIND COMPONENT LIMITS (PEAK GUST) AOM V1Boeing-recommended and Baltia company limitations which are not otherwise included in a specificprocedure. These limitations reflect manufacturer’s warranties or recommendations to increase service lifeof airplane equipment. Baltia company limitations are marked with BACOriginal 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
59 Maximum Structural Weights (AFM) Max Taxi Weight ,000 lbsMax Takeoff Weight at Brake Release ,000 lbsMax In-flight Weight, Landing= Flaps…...650,000 lbsMax Landing Weight ,000 lbsMax Zero Fuel Weight ,500 lbsMax Fuel Transfer Weight (1 & 4 Res)……638,000 lbsMax Taxi Weight ,000 lbsMax Takeoff Weight at Brake Release ,000 lbsMax In-flight Weight, Landing= Flaps…...650,000 lbsMax Landing Weight ,000 lbsMax Zero Fuel Weight ,500 lbsMax Fuel Transfer Weight (1 & 4 Res)……638,000 lbsPERFORMANCE OPERATING WEIGHTS (AFM)Aircraft takeoff performance weight limits ARE derived from the takeoff gross weight charts AND are in compliance with theclimb gradient requirements specified in FAR Part 25 and FAR Part 36.The takeoff performance weight limits for conditions on the takeoff gross weight data charts are weights at brakerelease.The takeoff gross weight data charts are based on second segment climb performance requirements. No othersegment of the takeoff flight path is more limiting within the approved operational range.(Second Segment – Extends from gear up point to 400’ AGL using takeoff thrust & takeoff flaps. 3% climb gradient required)Maximum permissible takeoff weight may be less than the structural limiting weight due to some other criteria suchas available runway length, maximum V1, brake energy limits, obstacle clearance, etc.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
60 Fuel Tanks AOM v2 Fuel Tanks All B-747 fuel tanks are integral, wet tanks formed by the forward and aft wing spars and the aircraft skin. Allaircraft have four main tanks and a center wing tank.Additionally, depending on aircraft model, there are either two or four reserve tanks.Our Passenger aircraft has four reserve tanks.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
61 Fuel Capacity Maximum Fuel Tank Quantities (AFM) 1 & 4 Reserve Tanks ,417 lbs (510 U.S. GAL)1 & 4 Main Tanks ,935 lbs (4,319 U.S. GAL)2 & 3 Main Tanks ,051 lbs (12,540 U.S. GAL)2 & 3 Reserve ,573 lbs (785 U.S. GAL)Center Wing Tank ,993 lbs (17,164 U.S. GAL)AOM V1 2.17
62 Max Speed MAX OPERATING SPEEDS Vmo Mmo S.L. 378 KIAS -- FL KIAS .92MAOM V1 2.4Vmo = Max Operating Limit SpeedMmo = Maximum Operating Limit MachMach/Airspeed Warning. VMO + 3 KIAS MMO + .01The maximum operating limit speed shall not be deliberately exceeded in any regime of flight.All airspeed markings and placards in the aircraft are shown as indicated (IAS) values and are not corrected forinstrument error. VMO is indicated by the limit speed hand (barber pole) on the airspeed indicator.
63 TURBULENCE PENETRATION SPEED 290-310 KIAS .82-.85 M OPERATIONS IN REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUM (AFM)For all operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum airspace, 0.90 Mach is not to be exceeded and for operations at gross weights less than 235,868 kilograms (520,000 pounds), 0.87 Mach is not to be exceeded between flight level 290 and 340.AOM v111. TURBULENCE PENETRATIONKIAS M12. OPERATIONS IN REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUM (AFM)For all operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum airspace, 0.90 Mach is not to be exceeded and foroperations at gross weights less than 235,868 kilograms (520,000 pounds), 0.87 Mach is not to be exceededbetween flight level 290 and 340Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
65 Baltia’s aircraft are powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofan engines Baltia’s aircraft are powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofan engines. The engine is a two-spool, axial flow turbofan of high compression ratio and high bypass ratio.Baltia 747 Classic series aircraft are equipped with four Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7A series engines.The JT9D engine is a dual-rotor, axial flow, high bypass ratio turbofan. The fan delivers approximately 75% of the thrust.The JT9D-7A engine has a static thrust rating of 46,150 Lbs.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
66 on the front of the fan. There are no inlet guide vanes. Two compressors (N1 and N2) are connected to their respective turbine assemblies by means of shafts. TheN1 and N2 compressor-turbine assemblies are mechanically independent of each other.N1 consists of a single fan and a three-stage compressor driven by a four-stage turbine. A spinner is locatedon the front of the fan. There are no inlet guide vanes.N2 consists of an eleven-stage compressor, driven by a two-stage turbine.The compressors are designed to achieve maximum efficiency at cruise thrust. During starting and at lowthrust conditions, an automatic overboard compressor bleed system provides stable operation. Stability isfurther augmented by variable stator vanes installed in front of the first four N2 compressor stages.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
67 The engine incorporates two multistage turbine-driven compressors utilizing concentric shafting. The low pressure (N1) compressor, consisting of one fan stage and three compressor stages, is driven by a four-stage turbine.The engine incorporates two multistage turbine-driven compressors utilizing concentric shafting.The low-pressure compressor unit (N1) consists of a single stage fan and a four-stage compressorconnected to a four-stage turbine.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
68 The high pressure (N2) eleven-stage compressor is driven by a two-stage turbine. The high-pressure compressor unit (N2) consists of a eleven-stagecompressor unit connected to a two-stage turbine through concentric shafting.Original 05 May 98Revised 08 Feb 99
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