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ASSESSMENT OF INVASIVENESS AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NON-NATIVE PLANTS IN TEXAS Guy Nesom, Fort Worth Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Conference November.

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1 ASSESSMENT OF INVASIVENESS AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NON-NATIVE PLANTS IN TEXAS Guy Nesom, Fort Worth Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Conference November 2009

2 Overview of non-native plant species in Texas * which are here? * which are the most damaging, the least? * which are most likely to become widespread and damaging? (WATCH) * which have the greatest possibility of being eradicated? * which require more information for accurate evaluation? * which damaging species are likely to enter Texas in the near future? (EXPECTED) Perspectives useful in public awareness and in decisions toward efforts in prevention, detection, and control

3 A documented account of 820 non-native species reported to grow outside of cultivation in Texas has been developed. [est total species] About 300 of these species have been reported since the 1970 publication of the Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas -- each of these has been documented by at least a literature reference. A “Fundamental Invasiveness Index” provides a framework for ranking of each of the non-native species according to their invasiveness and ecological impact. The Index is based on knowledge of the species from field, herbarium, and literature. The F1 category (invasive in natural habitats and ecologically damaging) includes 51 species. A Watch List (those most likely to become F1) includes 60 species. A Super Watch List (a subset of the Watch List, those with greatest potential to be eradicated) includes 45 species. An Expected List ( species not yet in Texas but probably to arrive soon, potentially to become F1) includes 25 species. SUMMARY

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authenticity of this work, especially in evaluation of the F1 species and Watch List but also in discussion of concepts and other topics, owes to contributions from Jed Aplaca, Bill Carr, Norma Fowler, Laura Hansen, Stephan Hatch, Walter Holmes, Eric Keith, Barney Lipscomb, Andy McDonald, Barbara McRoberts, Michael McRoberts, Tom Patterson, Jackie Poole, Mike Powell, Nelson Rich, Monique Reed, David Rosen, Jason Singhurst, Bruce Sorrie, Damon Waitt, and Justin Williams. Detailed journal reviews by Jackie Poole, Damon Waitt, and Bruce Hoagland were valuable in refinement of the ranking protocols –– and the detailed commentaries by Jackie Poole on everything from A to Z was helpful and appreciated beyond expression. Barney Lipscomb, Editor of J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas, helped in many ways, especially with literature and with planning of the publication.

5 To be published as a manuscript in late Nov 2009 (J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas) The published manuscript will include * commentary on development of the complete list * commentary on the ranking categories for Texas * a brief review of other ranking systems in the USA The information is available online, regularly updated

6 Citation for web files Nesom, G.L., J.L. Aplaca, W.R. Carr, N.L. Fowler, L.L. Hansen, S.L. Hatch, B.W. Hoagland, W.C. Holmes, E.L. Keith, B.L. Lipscomb, B.R. MacRoberts, M.H. MacRoberts, J.A. McDonald, T.F. Patterson, J.M. Poole, A.M. Powell, N. Rich, M.D. Reed, D.J. Rosen, J.R. Singhurst, B.A. Sorrie, B.L. Turner, D.E. Waitt, and J.K. Williams Non- native plants of Texas: Overview of occurrence and invasiveness assessments.

7 Index Categories F1: Invasive in both disturbed and natural habitats, negatively affecting native species or natural biodiversity by altering native vegetation and habitats or by outcompeting or hybridizing with native species; or, invasive into agricultural habitats and causing significant economic damage. Woody (17 species), Herbaceous (25 species), Aquatic (9 species), total 51 F2: Abundant in number and widespread, commonly invasive in disturbed habitats, much less commonly in natural habitats. Woody (13 species), Herbaceous (229 species), Aquatic (16 species), total 258 F3: Relatively few in number, known from relatively few localities, usually in disturbed habitats. Woody (76 species), Herbaceous (354 species), total 424 F4: Status unknown. (80+ species) Watch List: species with high potential to rapidly become destructive in Texas; those most likely to warrant F1 ranking. Woody, Herbaceous, and Aquatic (60 species) Super Watch List (subset of Watch List): species with greatest potential to be eradicated. 45 species

8 For evaluation of an individual species, knowledge is required of the following: * Nativity. Is the species native or non-native? * Approximate date of introduction in Texas (e.g., pre-1970, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s). Documentation in the current account does not provide specific information for species introduced before 1970 (those included in Correll & Johnston’s “Manual”), but for species recorded since that time, dates are evident in a file posted and periodically updated on the internet. * Current geographic distribution. Based on distribution maps in Turner et al. (2003), distribution maps generated by data from Invaders of Texas (2009), records from herbaria, and literature accounts. * Ecological/reproductive behavior in Texas and in other regions. Based on field experience of the author and others, published literature, and information from herbarium collections. * Basic habitat and growth form (aquatic or terrestrial, herbaceous or woody). Based on field experience, published literature, information from herbarium collections.

9 Caesalpinia mexicana Native in Texas or spreading from cultivation? 2003 Atlas

10 Chilopsis linearis Native in south Texas, non-native in north Texas? 2003 Atlas

11 For evaluation of an individual species, knowledge is required of the following * Nativity. Is the species native or non-native? * Approximate date of introduction in Texas (e.g., pre-1970, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s). Documentation in the current account does not provide specific information for species introduced before 1970 (those included in Correll & Johnston’s “Manual”), but for species recorded since that time, dates are evident in a documentation file posted and regularly updated on the internet. * Current geographic distribution. Based on distribution maps in Turner et al. (2003), EDDMapS distribution maps generated by data from Invaders of Texas (2009), records from herbaria, and literature accounts. * Ecological/reproductive behavior in Texas and in other regions. Based on field experience of the author and others, published literature, and information from herbarium collections. * Basic habitat and growth form (aquatic or terrestrial, herbaceous or woody). Based on field experience, published literature, information from herbarium collections.

12 Documentation file: on-screen view ARACEAE * Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Arridge, R.E. and P.J. Fongteyn Naturalization of Colocasia esculenta (Araceae) in the San Marcos River, Texas. Southw. Nat. 26: 210–211. Dense stands of this species grow on the banks of the Blanco, Colorado, Guadalupe, and San Marcos rivers. This species is recorded from 6 counties, fide Turner et al. (2003). Jackie Poole (pers. comm., July 2009) notes that it is “under- represented in herbaria. It’s at Lost Maples in Bandera County, and I don’t doubt that it’s in many other Hill Country streams as well.” The Invaders of Texas database and EDD Map show the species in 11 counties: Bexar, Brazoria, Guadalupe, Hardin, Harris, Hays, Liberty, Montgomery, Tarrant, Travis, and Valverde. * Cryptocoryne beckettii Thwaites ex Trimen Rosen, D.J Cryptocoryne beckettii (Araceae), a new aquatic plant in Texas. Sida 19: 399–401. Hays Co. San Marcos River, as large naturalized colonies in open shallow riffles and shaded deep pools. * Pistia stratioides L. Included in the 1970 Texas Flora. Vouchered at TEX for 7 counties, but shown by Howard (2009) to occur in 10 discrete Texas drainage systems, clearly in at least 10 counties. Howard, V Pistia stratiotes. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. Revision Date: 3/14/2008 * Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott Lemke, D.E. and E.L. Schneider Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Araceae) new to Texas. Southw. Nat. 33: 498–499. Hays Co. San Marcos River, growing with Colocasia esculenta. Guadalupe Co. Guadalupe River, near Seguin. ASCLEPIACEAE Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb. ex R. Br.) R. Br. Patterson, T.F. and G.L. Nesom Cryptostegia grandiflora (Asclepiadaceae), a new non-native weed for Texas. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3: 461– 463. Starr Co. Two localities along the Rio Grande; it is abundant at both sites and often densely covers entire trees. This species has been described by the Australian Invasive Species Council as “arguably Australia's worst weed.”

13 * Fundamental Invasive Index INDEX CATEGORIES * All species, with Invasive Index rankings COMPLETE LIST * All aquatic species, grouped by Invasive Index ranking ALL AQUATIC Numbers of non-native species in Texas ranked as F1, F2, F3, and F4. The total is 820 species. * Species ranked as F1 F1 * Species ranked as F2 F2 * Watch List WATCH * Expected List EXPECTED * Non-native Texas species on lists from nearby states and regions RANKED NEARBY * Non-native species reported for Texas since 1970 DOCUMENTATION CITATION F1 Woody Herbaceous Aquatic TOTAL F2 Woody Herbaceous Aquatic TOTAL F3 Woody Herbaceous TOTAL F4 Woody Herbaceous TOTAL Non-native plants of Texas [on-screen view] [on-screen view] Comments, suggestions, and questions about any of these lists, rankings, or concepts are sought and welcomed. Post and read comments in blog format. BLOG Last update: 14 Oct 2009

14 Complete List: [on-screen view] Non-native Species In Texas: Complete List All known non-native species (terrestrial and aquatic) that occur in Texas are listed here, organized by family. 820 species are included. Each species is ranked on the Fundamental Invasiveness Index developed for Texas species. Documentation for additions since 1970 is in a separate file: “Non-native species naturalized in Texas: Reported since 1970.” Last update: 3 October 2009 ACANTHACEAE Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders. F2-Aquatic Nomaphila stricta (Vahl) Nees F2-Aquatic Ruellia caerulea Morong F3-Herbaceous SYN= Ruellia brittoniana Leonard Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims F3-Herbaceous ALOACEAE Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. F3-Herbaceous AMARANTHACEAE Achyranthes aspera L. F3-Herbaceous Alternanthera caracasana Kunth F2-Herbaceous Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. F1-Aquatic Alternanthera pungens Kunth F3-Herbaceous Alternanthera tenella Colla F3-Herbaceous SYN= Alternanthera bettzichiana (Regel.) Standl. Amaranthus blitum L. F2-Herbaceous SYN= Amaranthus viridus auct. non L. Amaranthus cruentus L. F3-Herbaceous SYN= Amaranthus hybridus var. cruentus (L.) Moq. Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. F3-Herbaceous Amaranthus sessilis (L.) DC.F4-Herbaceous Celosia argentea L. F3-Herbaceous Gomphrena globosa L. F2-Herbaceous to end of file, families A-Z

15 * Fundamental Invasive Index INDEX CATEGORIES * All species, with Invasive Index rankings COMPLETE LIST * All aquatic species, grouped by Invasive Index ranking ALL AQUATIC Numbers of non-native species in Texas ranked as F1, F2, F3, and F4. The total is 820 species. * Species ranked as F1 F1 * Species ranked as F2 F2 * Watch List WATCH * Expected List EXPECTED * Non-native Texas species on lists from nearby states and regions RANKED NEARBY * Non-native species reported for Texas since 1970 DOCUMENTATION CITATION F1 Woody Herbaceous Aquatic TOTAL F2 Woody Herbaceous Aquatic TOTAL F3 Woody Herbaceous TOTAL F4 Woody Herbaceous TOTAL Non-native plants of Texas [on-screen view] [on-screen view] Comments, suggestions, and questions about any of these lists, rankings, or concepts are sought and welcomed. Post and read comments in blog format. BLOG Last update: 14 Oct 2009

16 All non-native aquatic species known in Texas F1 = Known to occur in 10 or more counties F2 = Known to occur in 9 or fewer counties (number of counties of known occurrence in parenthesis) F1-AQUATIC (9 species) Alternanthera philoxeroides (20+) Colocasia esculenta (11) Eichhornia crassipes (25) Hydrilla verticillata (85+) Myriophyllum aquaticum (18) Myriophyllum spicatum (10) Nasturtium officinale (35) Pistia stratiotes (10 or more) Salvinia molesta (10) F2-AQUATIC (16 species) Ceratopteris thalictroides (1) Cryptocoryne beckettii (1) Egeria densa (3) Hydrocleys nymphoides (1 or few) Hygrophila polysperma (2) Landoltia punctata (6) Limnophila sessiliflora (2) Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. grandiflora (3) Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (9) Nomaphila stricta (1) Nymphoides indica (1) Nymphoides peltata (2) Ottelia alismoides (1) Potamogeton crispus (8) Salvinia minima (2) Xanthosoma sagittifolium (2)

17 Colocasia esculenta Naturalizing mostly around urban areas Atlas 2009 EDDMapS Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System – observations from Invaders of Texas database

18 F1 Rankings – Woody and Herbaceous F1 HERBACEOUS Atriplex semibaccata Bassia scoparia Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica Carduus nutans subsp. macrocephalus Centaurea melitensis Cynodon dactylon Cyperus entrerianus Dichanthium annulatum Dichanthium aristatum Dichanthium sericeum Eragrostis lehmanniana Lolium perenne Lygodium japonicum Marrubium vulgare Melilotus albus Melilotus indicus Melilotus officinalis Orobanche ramosa Pennisetum ciliare Rapistrum rugosum Salsola kali subsp. pontica Salsola tragus Solanum viarum Sorghum halepense Urochloa maxima F1 WOODY Ailanthus altissima Arundo donax Ligustrum lucidum Ligustrum quihoui Ligustrum sinense Lonicera japonica Melia azedarach Nandina domestica Rosa bracteata Rosa multiflora Tamarix aphylla Tamarix chinensis (including T. pentandra, T. ramosissima) Tamarix gallica (including T. canariensis, T. africana) Tamarix parviflora Triadica sebifera Ulmus pumila Wisteria sinensis Invasive in both disturbed and natural habitats, negatively affecting native species or natural biodiversity by altering native vegetation and habitats or by outcompeting or hybridizing with native species …

19 F2 Rankings – Woody and Herbaceous F2 HERBACEOUS 228 species F2 WOODY Albizia julibrissin Broussonetia papyrifera Hypericum perforatum Lagerstroemia indica Lantana camara Morus alba Nicotiana glauca Phyllostachys aurea Poncirus trifoliata Pueraria montana var. lobata Pyrus calleryana Rosa laevigata Vitex agnus-castus Abundant in number and widespread, commonly invasive in disturbed habitats, much less commonly in natural habitats.

20 Watch list: non-native species in Texas potentially ranked as F1 Known in Texas only from a few recently recorded populations and known to be both invasive and ecologically destructive in other regions of the USA or the world. A number of additional F3 species, especially the woody ones, and some of those ranked as F4 (“status unknown”) probably belong on the Watch List. from F2-WOODY: Hypericum perforatum Pueraria montana var. lobata Pyrus calleryana Vitex agnus-castus from F3-WOODY: Ardisia crenata Casuarina equisetifolia Cinnamomum camphora Cortaderia selloana Elaeagnus angustifolia Leucaena leucocephala Lonicera maackii Macfadyena unguis-cati Photinia serratifolia Pistacia chinensis Schinus molle Schinus terebinthifolius Ulmus parvifolia from F2-HERBACEOUS: Carduus tenuiflorus Cirsium vulgare Clematis terniflora Gibasis pellucida Lespedeza cuneata Perilla frutescens Polygonum arenastrum Polygonum persicaria Stachys floridana Torilis arvensis Verbena brasiliensis from F2-AQUATIC Ceratopteris thalictroides Cryptocoryne beckettii Egeria densa Hydrocleys nymphoides Hygrophila polysperma Landoltia punctata Limnophila sessiliflora Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. grandiflora Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexapetala Nomaphila stricta Nymphoides indica Nymphoides peltata Ottelia alismoides Potamogeton crispus Salvinia minima Xanthosoma sagittifolium from F3-HERBACEOUS: Carduus acanthoides Cayratia japonica Cryptostegia grandiflora Elymus repens Imperata cylindrica Lespedeza bicolor Microstegium vimineum

21 Cryptostegia grandiflora Watch List Rubber vine is smothering riverine forests in the dry tropics of north Queensland ( northeast Australia ), especially along rivers feeding into the Gulf of Carpentaria. “It is arguably Australia's worst weed.” - Invasive Species Council of Australia

22 Super Watch List -- What is realistic? The Watch List account perhaps is the most significant part of the overview of Texas non-native native plants provided here. Super Watch List (subset of the Watch List) –– those species that perhaps can be removed from the Texas landscape before they become impossible to control. Immediate attention should go to these. F1s and many of the F2s are already so widespread that it is unlikely that they can be eradicated or even controlled except by sustained efforts on local levels. Biological control? Many of the Watch List species –– especially widely cultivated woody species -- also probably are beyond eradication. Control by limiting further planting? All of the F2 aquatics are included because of their potential for extremely rapid dispersal and growth, but at least some of them are beyond eradication.

23 Super Watch List From F1-HERBACEOUS *Solanum viarum -- attempt to eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) From F2-WOODY: *Hypericum perforatum -- attempt to eradicate *Pueraria montana var. lobata -- attempt to eradicate from F3-WOODY: *Ardisia crenata -- attempt to eradicate *Casuarina equisetifolia -- attempt to eradicate *Cinnamomum camphora -- attempt to eradicate (but commonly cultivated) *Elaeagnus angustifolia -- attempt to eradicate *Leucaena leucocephala -- attempt to eradicate *Lonicera maackii -- attempt to eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) *Macfadyena unguis-cati -- attempt to eradicate *Schinus terebinthifolius -- attempt to eradicate from F2-HERBACEOUS: *Clematis terniflora -- attempt to eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) *Gibasis pellucida -- attempt to eradicate *Lespedeza cuneata -- attempt to eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) from F3-HERBACEOUS: *Cayratia japonica-- attempt to eradicate *Cryptostegia grandiflora -- attempt to eradicate *Imperata cylindrica -- attempt to eradicate *Microstegium vimineum -- attempt to eradicate from F2-AQUATIC: *Ceratopteris thalictroides *Colocasia esculenta *Cryptocoryne beckettii *Egeria densa *Hydrocleys nymphoides *Hygrophila polysperma *Landoltia punctata *Limnophila sessiliflora *Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. grandiflora *Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexapetala *Nomaphila stricta *Nymphoides indica *Nymphoides peltata *Ottelia alismoides *Potamogeton crispus *Salvinia minima *Xanthosoma sagittifolium All F2 Aquatics included because of their potential for extremely rapid dispersal and growth.

24 Watch List, annotated from F1-HERBACEOUS *Solanum viarum -- attempt to eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) from F2-WOODY: *Hypericum perforatum -- attempt to eradicate *Pueraria montana var. lobata -- attempt to eradicate Pyrus calleryana -- widely cultivated, probably here to stay and increase Vitex agnus-castus -- widely cultivated, probably here to stay and increase from F3-WOODY: *Ardisia crenata -- attempt to eradicate *Casuarina equisetifolia -- attempt to eradicate *Cinnamomum camphora -- attempt to eradicate (but commonly cultivated) *Elaeagnus angustifolia -- attempt to eradicate *Leucaena leucocephala -- attempt to eradicate *Lonicera maackii -- attempt to eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) *Macfadyena unguis-cati -- attempt to eradicate Photinia serratifolia -- widely cultivated, probably here to stay and increase Pistacia chinensis -- widely cultivated, probably here to stay and increase Pyracantha koidzumii -- attempt to eradicate Schinus molle -- widely cultivated, probably here to stay and increase *Schinus terebinthifolius -- attempt to eradicate Ulmus parvifolia -- widely cultivated, probably here to stay and increase from F2-HERBACEOUS: Carduus tenuiflorus -- already abundant, at least locally, probably here to stay and increase Cirsium vulgare -- already abundant, at least locally, probably here to stay and increase *Clematis terniflora -- attempt to eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) *Gibasis pellucida -- attempt to eradicate *Lespedeza cuneata -- attempt to eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) Perilla frutescens -- already abundant, at least locally, probably here to stay and increase Polygonum arenastrum -- already abundant, at least locally, probably here to stay and increase Polygonum persicaria -- already abundant, at least locally, probably here to stay and increase Stachys floridana -- already abundant, at least locally, probably here to stay and increase Torilis arvensis -- already abundant, at least locally, probably here to stay and increase Verbena brasiliensis -- already abundant, at least locally, probably here to stay and increase from F2-AQUATIC: *Ceratopteris thalictroides -- attempt to control and eradicate *Colocasia esculenta -- attempt to control and eradicate *Cryptocoryne beckettii -- attempt to control and eradicate *Egeria densa -- attempt to control and eradicate *Hydrocleys nymphoides -- attempt to control and eradicate *Hygrophila polysperma -- attempt to control and eradicate (but becoming locally abundant) *Landoltia punctata -- attempt to control and eradicate *Limnophila sessiliflora -- attempt to control and eradicate *Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. grandiflora -- attempt to control and eradicate *Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexapetala -- attempt to control and eradicate *Nomaphila stricta -- attempt to control and eradicate *Nymphoides indica -- attempt to control and eradicate *Nymphoides peltata -- attempt to control and eradicate *Ottelia alismoides -- attempt to control and eradicate *Potamogeton crispus -- attempt to control and eradicate *Salvinia minima -- attempt to control and eradicate *Xanthosoma sagittifolium -- attempt to control and eradicate * Super Watch list from F3-HERBACEOUS: *Cayratia japonica -- attempt to eradicate *Cryptostegia grandiflora -- attempt to eradicate *Imperata cylindrica -- attempt to eradicate *Microstegium vimineum -- attempt to eradicate

25 * Fundamental Invasive Index INDEX CATEGORIES * All species, with Invasive Index rankings COMPLETE LIST * All aquatic species, grouped by Invasive Index ranking ALL AQUATIC Numbers of non-native species in Texas ranked as F1, F2, F3, and F4. The total is 820 species. * Species ranked as F1 F1 * Species ranked as F2 F2 * Watch List WATCH * Expected List EXPECTED * Non-native Texas species on lists from nearby states and regions RANKED NEARBY * Non-native species reported for Texas since 1970 DOCUMENTATION CITATION F1 Woody Herbaceous Aquatic TOTAL F2 Woody Herbaceous Aquatic TOTAL F3 Woody Herbaceous TOTAL F4 Woody Herbaceous TOTAL Non-native plants of Texas [on-screen view] [on-screen view] Comments, suggestions, and questions about any of these lists, rankings, or concepts are sought and welcomed. Post and read comments in blog format. BLOG Last update: 14 Oct 2009

26 Expected List Alliaria petiolata (Garlic mustard) Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Porcelain berry). Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) Celastrus orbiculatus (Oriental bittersweet) Centaurea stoebe (Spotted knapweed) Centaurea solstitialis (Yellow star thistle) Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) Dioscorea alata (Winged yam) Elaeagnus pungens (Thorny olive) Elaeagnus umbellata (Autumn olive) Euonymus alatus (Burning bush) Euonymus fortunei (Wintercreeper) Euphorbia esula (Leafy spurge) Halogeton glomeratus (Saltlover) Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle) Lygodium microphyllum (Small-leaf climbing fern) Melaleuca quinquenervia (Paperbark) Miscanthus sinensis (Chinese silvergrass) Phalaris aquatica (Harding grass) Pennisetum setaceum (Fountain grass) Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed) Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus) Setaria faberi (Japanese bristlegrass) Typha angustifolia (Narrowleaf cattail) Wisteria floribunda (Japanese wisteria) Not currently known (with certainty) in Texas but occuring in nearby areas. Each is aggressively invasive and ecologically damaging, and there is a high probability that each soon will reach Texas. More to be added.

27 Non-native Texas species on lists from nearby states and regions Terrestrial non-native species known to occur in Texas assessed as invasive and/or with ecological impact elsewhere in the United States. Bold names are on the Texas F1 list. TEN -- Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (ranks 1, 2, 3) FLA -- Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council 2007 (ranks 1, 2) SST -- Miller, J., E. Chambliss, and C. Bargeron Invasive Plants of the Thirteen Southern States, a compilation of invasive plants listed by any of the 13 Southern States and those by federal agencies pertaining to these States as of May 2004 CAL -- California Invasive Plant Council AZ -- Arizona Wildlands Invasive Non-Native Plant List (ranks high, medium, low) Invasive Non-native plants that threaten wildlands in Arizona: A categorized list developed by the Arizona Wildlands Invasive Plant Working Group Acroptilon repens CAL, AZ-high Aegilops cylindrica AZ-low Agrostemma githago SST Ailanthus altissima TEN1, SST, CAL Aira caryophyllea CAL Ajuga reptans SST Albizia julibrissin TEN1, SST Albizia lebbeck FLA1, SST Alhagi maurorum CAL, AZ-med Alternanthera philoxeroides TEN2, FL2, SST, CAL Anthemis cotula CAL Anthoxanthum odoratum SST, CAL Antigonon leptopus FLA2 Arctium minus SST Ardisia crenata FLA1, SST Arenaria serpyllifolia SST Arthraxon hispidus TEN2, SST Arundo donax AZhigh, SST, TEN3, CAL Asphodelus fistulosus CAL, AZ-low Atriplex semibaccata CAL Avenua fatua CAL, AZ-med Bassia hyssopifolia CAL Bassia scoparia CAL Bellardia trixago CAL Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica TEN2, SST, CAL

28 * Fundamental Invasive Index INDEX CATEGORIES * All species, with Invasive Index rankings COMPLETE LIST * All aquatic species, grouped by Invasive Index ranking ALL AQUATIC Numbers of non-native species in Texas ranked as F1, F2, F3, and F4. The total is 820 species. * Species ranked as F1 F1 * Species ranked as F2 F2 * Watch List WATCH * Expected List EXPECTED * Non-native Texas species on lists from nearby states and regions RANKED NEARBY * Non-native species reported for Texas since 1970 DOCUMENTATION CITATION F1 Woody Herbaceous Aquatic TOTAL F2 Woody Herbaceous Aquatic TOTAL F3 Woody Herbaceous TOTAL F4 Woody Herbaceous TOTAL Non-native plants of Texas [on-screen view] [on-screen view] Comments, suggestions, and questions about any of these lists, rankings, or concepts are sought and welcomed. Post and read comments in blog format. BLOG Last update: 14 Oct 2009

29 Documentation file: on-screen view ASTERACEAE * Cnicus benedictus L. Jones, S.D., J.K. Wipff, and P.M. Montgomery Vascular plants of Texas: A comprehensive checklist including synonymy, bibliography, and index. Listed by Jones et al. (1997); included in the Texas distribution by Keil and Ochsmann (2006), apparently on the basis of the Jones et al. listing: “Roadsides, fields, waste places, sometimes cultivated; N.B., N.S., Ont.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Conn., Fla., Ga., Ill., Md., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Oreg., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Va., Wash., Wis.” The Texas record apparently is based on the following: Callahan Co.: “grown in a pot from a wheat field,” Mar 1993, J. Landers s.n. (TAES). The plant apparently was grown to identify a weed submitted for identification. Thanks to Steve Hatch for the voucher information. * Cotula australis (Sieber ex Spreng.) Hook. f. Recorded by Johnston (1990) based on plants from the Texas A&M campus, as documented here by collections at TEX; the report by Hatch et al. (1990) probably based on the same or similar collections. Brazos Co.: College Station, campus of A&M University, lawn weed with Soliva, 27 Apr 1970, Correll & Correll (LL, TEX); Texas A&M University campus, an Australian weed widely adventive in W hemisphere, the first population known in Texas, 23 Apr 1970, Johnston s.n. (TEX). * Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Brown, L.E., E.L. Keith, D.J. Rosen, and J. Liggio Notes of the flora of Texas with additions and other significant records. III. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 1255–1264. Harris, Polk cos. “Plants of this species rarely persist for more than one growing season but are often re-seeded for roadside beautification.”

30 Documentation file: on-screen view DIOSCORIDACEAE * Dioscorea bulbifera L. Correll, D.S Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas: I. Additions and corrections. Amer. Midl. Nat. 88: 490–496. “Eastern Texas.” Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. No voucher at TEX. * Dioscorea oppositifolia L. Johnston (1990) noted that “There is a possibility that D. oppositifolia also occurs in Texas (for nomenclature and character-states see Al-Shehbaz & Schubert 1989).” The species is included for Texas by the PLANTS Database on the basis of the Johnston (1990) allusion, but no vouchers have been seen and the species is excluded from the Texas flora. DIPSACACEAE * Dipsacus fullonum L. Singhurst, J.R. and W.C. Holmes Dipsacus fullonum (Dipsacaceae) and Verbesina walteri (Asteraceae), new to Texas. Sida 19: 723–725. Collin Co. * Scabiosa atropurpurea L. Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. Vouchered at TEX for Collin, Hunt, Lamar, and Rockwall counties. DRYOPTERIDACEAE * Cyrtomium falcatum (L. f.) Presl Brown L.E. and K.N. Gandhi Notes on the flora of Texas with additions, range extensions, and one correction. Phytologia 67: 394–399. Harris Co.; naturalized plants on bank of Langham Creek, west of Houston.

31 Documentation file: on-screen view VERBENACEAE * Clerodendrum bungei Steud. Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. * Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. * Duranta erecta L. Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. * Glandularia ×hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) Nesom & Pruski Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. * Verbena litoralis Kunth Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. * Vitex negundo L. Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. VIOLACEAE * Viola tricolor L. Hatch et al. (1990), as listed. A voucher at TEX explicitly is from a cultivated plant. Excluded from the Texas flora.

32 To do (most immediate) For 109 species added from undocumented floristic lists by Hatch et al. (1990), Johnston (1990), etc * provide documentation -- vouchers and other information For each F1 species and Watch List species * add/upgrade documentation for geographic distribution * provide a brief narrative regarding invasiveness and ecological impact in Texas Expected List * evaluate regionally near-by species for additions to Texas list Continuing Evaluations, re-evaluations Coordination with Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana


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