Presentation on theme: "Chapters 40.2-44 Vertebrates You are still responsible for reading the chapters, learning the vocabulary, and learning the reproductive cycles, feeding."— Presentation transcript:
Chapters 40.2-44 Vertebrates You are still responsible for reading the chapters, learning the vocabulary, and learning the reproductive cycles, feeding methods, and developmental stages of the organisms in your reading. Your final will provide you with the testing of this material.
Chapter 40.2 and 41 Overview of Chordates ◦ Includes all vertebrates and 2 groups of animals that lack backbones Notochord, dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches, and a postanal tail Evolution and Classification of Fishes ◦ Characteristics of 3 classes of fishes Agnatha = jawless fishes; Chondrichthyes = cartilaginous fishes; Osteichthyes = bony fishes (95% are in this class) ◦ Distinguish between cartilaginous and bony fishes Skeletons made of cartilage (sharks, skates, and rays) = flexible, lightweight material made of cells surrounded by tough fibers of protein ◦ Describe the special adaptations of fishes: Cartilaginous: can smell, see, and detect electrical fields to detect prey Bony: List the special adaptations of the bony fish
Chapter 42 Amphibian Overview ◦ Basic characteristics of each amphibian order Spend part of life in water and other part on land Evolved from lobe- finned fishes Share anatomical similarities with fishes including features of the skull and vertebral column Aquatic larval stage to terrestrial adult stage Moist, thin skin with no scales Feet lack claws and are often webbed Most use gills, lungs, and skin in respiration Eggs lack multicellular membranes or shells. Laid in water or moist environment Usually fertilized externally Reproduction in frogs Summarize the steps in the development of a frog
Chapter 43 Reptile Evolution ◦ General features of reptiles 2-loop circulatory system Heart has 2 atria and a single ventricle partly divided by a septum (lizards, snakes, tuataras, and turtles); heart has 2 atria and 2 ventricles Large lungs, often divided internally into several chambers Brain is about same size as amphibian of same size Jacobson’s Organ (found in all reptiles except crocodiles and most turtles) Thermoregulation 3 patterns of reproduction (based on how long the eggs remain in the female/how she provides them with nutrition) Oviparity = each egg is in protective shell Ovoviviparity = egg is retained within the female’s body for a time; eggs laid shortly before hatching OR may hatch within Viviparity = shell does not form around egg, young are retained
Chapter 43 continued Modern Reptiles ◦ Order Chelonia Turtles (aquatic) and tortoises (terrestrial) Body covered by shell = carapace (dorsal) and plastron (ventral) Habitat: ◦ Order Crocodilia Crocodiles, alligators, caimans, and gavials. Heavy body and aquatic Habitat: ◦ Order Squamata Lizards and snakes Upper jaw loosely joined to skull Most structurally diverse Have autonomy Habitat: ◦ Order Rhynchocephalia Tuataras genus Sphenodon Spiny crest Hide during day and feed at night
Chapter 44 Characteristics of Birds – class Aves ◦ Evidence suggests that birds evolved from ancient reptiles S-shaped neck, unique ankle joint, hollow bones Oldest known fossil: Archaeopteryx lithographica Had hollow bones and furcula, teeth, claws and long, bony tail ◦ General features of birds Feathers-modified scales: provide lift and aid in heat conservation Wings Lightweight, rigid skeleton-many are fused to provide stability Endothermic metabolism-generate heat to warm the body internally Unique respiratory system Beak Oviparity
Chapter 44 Continued Bird Reproduction ◦ Male: sperm is produced in 2 testes, passes through the vasa deferentia, into cloaca ◦ His cloaca presses against her cloaca ◦ Female has 1 ovary on left side of body: egg passes to oviduct, fertilized by sperm, leaves oviduct, receives protective covering and shell, expelled from cloaca ◦ Eggs laid in nest Nest holds eggs, conceal young birds from predators, provide shelter, and sometimes attract mate Eggs incubated by brood patch on underside of bird Hatch and remain in nest for period of time Precocial = active as soon as hatched; many in nest Altricial = hatch blind, naked, and helpless; dependent on parents for weeks