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In 1998 the Bureau of Labor and Statistics recorded 8,568 injuries due to occupational ladder falls: 41 of the falls resulted in fatalities 41 of the.

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Presentation on theme: "In 1998 the Bureau of Labor and Statistics recorded 8,568 injuries due to occupational ladder falls: 41 of the falls resulted in fatalities 41 of the."— Presentation transcript:

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3 In 1998 the Bureau of Labor and Statistics recorded 8,568 injuries due to occupational ladder falls: 41 of the falls resulted in fatalities 41 of the falls resulted in fatalities Ladders that are faulty, broken, improperly set up, or do not meet industry standards can result in serious injury or even death Roofers gain the most exposure to injury when ascending or descending ladders

4 There must be a stairway or ladder at points of access where there is an elevation break of 19 inches or more. § General Requirements

5 Provide at least 2 ladders (or double- cleated) when ladders are the only means of access and 25 or more employees One point of access kept clear If access blocked second access provided § General Requirements

6 Type 1 Type 1 Capacity = 250 lbs Type 1A Type 1A Capacity = 300 lbs Ladder ratings are located on the left side-rails of Step and Extension Ladders

7 1. Wood 2. Aluminum 3. Fiberglass Ladders are composed of three materials: PROS Most common Lightweight Does not conduct electricity Very lightweight CONSHeavy Prone to breakage Conducts electricity Expensive

8 Cracks Cracks Bends Bends Holes Holes Inspect Rungs and Side-Rails of ladders to ensure they are free of: Tar Tar Grease Grease Heavy dirt Heavy dirt Any material Any material that effects grip that effects grip Clean the ladder completely before utilizing Ladder must be tagged as Defective Ladder must be tagged as Defective “DO NOT USE”

9 Inspect the ladder’s feet to ensure they are: Inspect the ladder’s feet to ensure they are not: This ladder must be tagged as defective, removed from service, and repaired according to the manufacturer’s specifications; This ladder must be tagged as defective, removed from service, and repaired according to the manufacturer’s specifications; or be disposed of

10 Rungs on ladders manufactured after March 15, 1991 shall be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid resistant material, or otherwise treated to minimize slipping CORRUGATIONS This applies to all ladders!

11 Ladder Racks must be: Sturdy Sturdy Able to support the weight of the Able to support the weight of the heaviest ladder to be transported heaviest ladder to be transported Secured Secured To load/unload the ladder onto the racks: Get help from a second employee Get help from a second employee Secure to rack by lock and chain Secure to rack by lock and chain Extend 3 feet or less ( < 3) past the rear rack

12 L ow traffic area L ow traffic area Level area Level area Dry area Dry area A location as close as possible A location as close as possible to the project roof to the project roof Avoid rocks, loose sand, mud, Avoid rocks, loose sand, mud, and ice and ice An area free of power lines An area free of power lines What to LOOK for when setting up a ladder: PROPER LADDER SETUP IS CRUCIAL!

13 An area free of tree limbs An area free of tree limbs and any other object that can and any other object that can impede motion impede motion If setting up in an area of If setting up in an area of snow or ice, a de-icer must be snow or ice, a de-icer must be used used In medium to heavy traffic areas In medium to heavy traffic areas (pedestrian or car) use warning lines (pedestrian or car) use warning lines or caution tape to demarcate your or caution tape to demarcate your ladder access point ladder access point What to look for when setting up a ladder: What to look for when setting up a ladder:

14 1. Set up in the immediate area after ensuring it is free of debris 2. Have a second employee hold the base while you “walk” the top end up 3. When the ladder is vertical use the rope to pull the upper section to at least 3 feet above the roof 4. When set be sure that rung latches are locked in place

15 It is mandatory that you never set-up a ladder on ice or snow; unless de-icer is used

16 The angle of the ladder is best determined by a 1 to 4 ratio Divide the roof height, including any parapet walls, to the The angle of the ladder is best determined by a 1 to 4 ratio Divide the roof height, including any parapet walls, to the ground by 4 ground by 4 This number in feet is how far the base of the ladder should This number in feet is how far the base of the ladder should be set away from the building be set away from the building The angle created will be approximately 75.5 º, the ideal The angle created will be approximately 75.5 º, the ideal angle for climbing a ladder angle for climbing a ladder A quick test is to stand placing your toes against the base of the ladder reaching your arms out directly in front of you parallel to the ground. If set properly, your hands should reach the rung closest to your arms! Proper Angle Set-up

17 Building height = 20 feet from ground to roof, or top of parapet wall 20÷4 5 The base of the ladder will be placed 5 feet from the wall 20’ 5’ Example of the 1 to 4 Ratio

18 Place Toes Against Bottom of Ladder Side-Rails Side-Rails 2. Stand Erect 3. Extend Arms Straight Out 4. Palms of Hands Should Touch Top of Rung at Shoulder Level Rung at Shoulder Level Here is an easy way to ensure the ladder setup follows the 1 to 4 rule: 75°

19 Wind Bar Wind Bar Termination Bar Termination Bar Screws or Heavy Nails Screws or Heavy Nails (to the inside of the roof) (to the inside of the roof) Fall Protection Anchor Plates Fall Protection Anchor Plates The inside of metal coping The inside of metal coping Make sure that at least 3 rungs extend above the roof, & tie off the top of the ladder to the building; This can be achieved by utilizing: Mount it to these points with: Rope Rubber Bungie Cord Rubber Bungie Cord Never use cloth bungie to tie off a ladder

20 Tying the ladder off to perimeter metal coping: Ensure the coping is secure Ensure the coping is secure Use rubber bungee cords Use rubber bungee cords Tie it to the inside of the coping Tie it to the inside of the coping Tying the ladder to the exterior of the metal will not hold if the base of the ladder “kicks out” Tying the ladder off with a gutter in place: Never tie the ladder to a gutter Never tie the ladder to a gutter (tie it to the roof) (tie it to the roof) Place a block of wood in the gutter Place a block of wood in the gutter to provide support and to prevent to provide support and to prevent damage damage

21 When working in slick conditions such as rain or snow use a base support. This would include: Tying the base off to the buildingTying the base off to the building Tying the base off to a stakeTying the base off to a stake On Concrete: Be sure slip resistant pads are flat Be sure slip resistant pads are flat In Dirt: Tilt feet (with spikes down) Tilt feet (with spikes down) Push feet into ground Push feet into ground

22 1. Only 1 person on the ladder at a time 2. Face the ladder 3. Maintain a three - point contact with the ladder at all times the ladder at all times 4. Other employees should hold the base and top of the ladder while the crew is and top of the ladder while the crew is climbing up or down climbing up or down 5. Never carry tools in your hands while climbing a ladder, or material. climbing a ladder, or material. 6. Use a backpack to carry items to the roof or ground (or rope the items up) roof or ground (or rope the items up) When climbing the ladder:

23 Access to the top and base of a ladder must be clear of any obstructionsAccess to the top and base of a ladder must be clear of any obstructions No employee shall be left on a roof project after the ladder has been taken down without another route of escape in the event of an emergencyNo employee shall be left on a roof project after the ladder has been taken down without another route of escape in the event of an emergency Ladders shall be taken down at lunch and at the end of each work day for liability purposesLadders shall be taken down at lunch and at the end of each work day for liability purposes Materials at the top or base of a ladder can lead to falls Additional Requirements:

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25 Metal Spreader 20‘ Maximum General rules for the use of step ladders: Do not stand on or above the second rung from the top second rung from the top Separation between rungs must be a maximum of 12 inches a maximum of 12 inches The maximum length of the front The maximum length of the front rail is 20 feet rail is 20 feet The feet must contain an insulating The feet must contain an insulating non-slip material non-slip material The metal spreader must firmly The metal spreader must firmly hold the front and rear sections hold the front and rear sections in the open position in the open position

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27 Fixed ladders can only be used for roof access if they meet the following criteria: Must support a live load of 200 pounds pounds Rungs must be no less than 3/4 of an Rungs must be no less than 3/4 of an inch in diameter inch in diameter The space between rungs must be The space between rungs must be uniform and no greater than 12 uniform and no greater than 12 inches inches The distance between the ladder The distance between the ladder and the point of attachment must and the point of attachment must be a minimum of 7inches be a minimum of 7inches 7 inches minimum 12 inch maximum

28 Remain closed until employees Remain closed until employees access or leave the roof access or leave the roof Be of sturdy construction Be of sturdy construction Have warning lines around the Have warning lines around the hatch, if it is to remain open hatch, if it is to remain open Above is a hatch surrounded by a guardrail (this is ideal) In order for ladder hatches to be used as the point of access to a roof they must:

29 Instructions for opening and closing ladder/roof hatches: Only open and close a hatch from a ladder when it is required Only open and close a hatch from a ladder when it is required Always have a tight grip of the ladder Always have a tight grip of the ladder Use the latch handle to close the hatch Use the latch handle to close the hatch Never use the prop arm handle to close the hatch (the rubber Never use the prop arm handle to close the hatch (the rubber handle can slide off which may cause a fall) handle can slide off which may cause a fall)

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