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The energetics of maturation Bas Kooijman Dept theoretical biology Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Amsterdam 2012/04/23.

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Presentation on theme: "The energetics of maturation Bas Kooijman Dept theoretical biology Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Amsterdam 2012/04/23."— Presentation transcript:

1 The energetics of maturation Bas Kooijman Dept theoretical biology Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Amsterdam 2012/04/23

2 Energy Budgets Basic processes Feeding Digestion Storing Growth Maturation Maintenance Reproduction Product formation Aging All have ecological implications All interact during the life cycle Life history events zero: start of development birth: start of feeding start of acceleration metamorphosis: end of acceleration puberty: end of maturation start of reproduction Life stages embryo juvenile adult

3 1-  maturity maintenance maturity offspring maturation reproduction Standard DEB model foodfaeces assimilation reserve feeding defecation structure somatic maintenance growth  One type of food faeces reserve structure Isomorphy

4 Foetal development 2.6.2l surface area of the placenta  length foetus 2 X-ray of dolphin embryo

5 Fetal development weight, g time, d Mus musculus Fetus develops like egg but rate not restricted by reserve (because supply during development) Initiation of development can be delayed by implantation egg cell Nutritional condition of mother only affects fetus in extreme situations Data: MacDowell et al 1927 Empirical model: Huggett & Widdas 1951

6 Reptile-Mammal transition 1.1.4b, 7.7 nursing Platypus Moschops (Dinocephalia) Megazostrodon (Triconodonta) Ptilodus (Multituberculata) Cynognathus (Cynodontia)Lystrosaurus (Dicynodontia) caseine synthetase Ma vitellogenin-encoding lost Ma Brawand et al 2008: Plos Biol 6:0507

7 Egg-foetus transitions in Poeciliopsis P. elongata P. fasciata P. turrubarensis 1.1.4J, cont 2

8 Embryonic development 2.6.2e time, d weight, g O 2 consumption, ml/h Carettochelys insculpta Data from Web et al 1986 yolk embryo

9 Diapauze 2.6.2c seeds of heather Calluna vulgaris can germinate after 100 year

10 Embryos with assimilation 1.1.4l The chlamydomonad Oophila amblystomatis lives intra-cellularly in the embryo-tissues of the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum and returns carbohydrates and dioxygen for ammonia

11 Acceleration of development Embryo: isomorphic v constant Early juvenile: V1-morphic v, {p Am } increase with length Late juvenile/adult: isomorphic v, {p Am } constant Found in: bivalves, gastropods, copepods, amphipods, decapods, collembolas, echinoderms, lancelets, tunas, flatfish, anchovy, Danio, cod, caecilians, marsupials

12 Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus time, d length, cm 0.16 cm 0.22 cm 0.4 cm 0.9 cm 1.2 cm >4 cm embryo Pecquerie 2008 PhD thesis VU A’dam

13 Stage transitions at maturity thresholds Danio rerio 28.5°C Augustine et al 2011 Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 159 :275– a

14 Stage transitions at maturity thresholds Augustine et al 2011 Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 159 :275–283 Danio rerio 28.5°C Data: Lauwrence et al 2008 caloric restiction Data: Augustine < birth : isomorph birth-metamorphosis: V1-morph > metamorphosis : isomorph 7.8.2b

15 Acceleration of development 7.8.2c indirect direct acceleration development no yes Pseudophryne bibronii Geocrinia vitellina Crinia georgiana Crinia nimbus

16 Acceleration of development 7.8.2d O 2 nmol/h Dry mass, mg Crinia georgiana Pseudophryne bibronii age, d hatch birth Mueller et al 2011, subm max dry weight 500 mg max dry weight 200 mg 12 °C 1 0 ½ ¾ ¼  1 0 ½ ¾ ¼ metam

17 DEB tele course Free of financial costs; Some 108 or 216 h effort investment Program for 2013: Feb/Mar general theory (5w) April symposium at NIOZ-Texel (NL) (8d +3 d) Target audience: PhD students We encourage participation in groups who organize local meetings weekly Software package DEBtool for Octave/ Matlab freely downloadable Slides of this presentation are downloadable from Cambridge Univ Press 2009 Audience : thank you for your attention


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