2 A stimulus is a(an) reaction to an external event. reaction to an internal event.internal or external response.internal or external signal.
3 For a behavior to evolve under the influence of natural selection, that behavior must be directed by genes.neither adaptive nor harmful.acquired through learning.related to predator avoidance.
4 Animals that have very simple nervous systems cannot detect external stimuli.process information from their senses.respond to stimuli.exhibit complex behaviors.
5 Suppose two animals exhibit different responses to the same stimulus Suppose two animals exhibit different responses to the same stimulus. Which of the following would NOT be a plausible explanation for this difference?Only one of the animals is sensitive to that stimulus.The animals’ nervous systems process information differently.The animals’ muscular and skeletal systems are different.Different experiences have caused the animals to learn different responses.
6 When disturbed, certain moths lift their front wings to expose eyelike markings on their hind wings. This behavior would be most effective against predators that hunt bysound.smell.sight.touch.
7 Which of the following terms is NOT closely related to the others? innate behaviorlearned behaviorinborn behaviorinstinct
8 The Fischer’s lovebird builds its nests with long strips of vegetation that it cuts with its beak. A closely related species, the peach-faced lovebird, cuts shorter strips for its nests. When these two species are interbred, the hybrid offspring cut strips of intermediate length for their nests. These observations suggest that this aspect of nest building isan innate behavior.the product of insight learning.influenced by imprinting.a behavioral cycle.
9 Complex inborn behaviors include each of the following EXCEPT web building in spiders.nest building in birds.potato washing in macaques.suckling of newborn mammals.
10 Young sea turtles head for the ocean immediately after they hatch Young sea turtles head for the ocean immediately after they hatch. This behavior is most likelyinnate.learned through trial and error.classically conditioned.the result of habituation.
11 You could conclude that a behavior is innate rather than learned if you showed that the behavior is different in individuals that have had different experiences.some individuals perform the behavior and some do not.individuals become better at performing the behavior the more they practice it.all individuals perform the behavior the same way each time.
12 Trial-and-error learning is also known as operant conditioning.insight learning.classical conditioning.innate behavior.
13 Insight learning is a form of behavior that is characterized by decreased responsiveness to unimportant stimuli.involves random responses that lead to either reward or punishment.involves applying something already learned to a new situation.is performed correctly without any previous experience.
14 The process in which an animal stops responding to a repetitive stimulus is called habituation.classical conditioning.operant conditioning.instinct.
15 Any change in which a behavior is altered as a result of experience is called habituation.operant conditioning.innate behavior.learning.
16 In Pavlov’s experiments on classical conditioning, dogs learned to associate food with salivation.learned to ring a bell whenever they were hungry.associated a stimulus with a reward.were conditioned to produce an innate behavior in response to food.
17 Aquarium fish often swim to the water’s surface when a person approaches. Their behavior has probably formed throughinstinct.classical conditioning.imprinting.insight learning.
18 If a dog that barks when indoors is always let outside immediately, it will learn to bark whenever it wants to go outside. This change in the dog’s behavior is an example ofclassical conditioning.operant conditioning.insight learning.imprinting.
19 People who move into an apartment near railroad tracks are awakened at night each time they hear a train go by. After about a week, they can sleep through the night, even though the trains continue to run on the same schedule. The change in their sleeping behavior is an example ofclassical conditioning.operant conditioning.habituation.insight learning.
20 When you use knowledge and experience to figure out why a lamp in your house will not light, you are usingclassical conditioning.insight learning.innate behavior.trial-and-error learning.
21 The type of learning that results from the association of two stimuli in the environment is called classical conditioning.operant conditioning.habituation.trial-and-error learning.
22 A rat that successfully runs a maze is rewarded with food A rat that successfully runs a maze is rewarded with food. Each time the rat runs the same maze, it makes fewer mistakes before it reaches the food. The rat is learning to find the food throughclassical conditioning.operant conditioning.habituation.insight learning.
23 For young geese to imprint on an object, that object must move.be some kind of animal.look like an adult goose.be the same size as an adult goose.
24 The ability of salmon to recognize their home stream at spawning time is an example of insight learning.competition.imprinting.communication.
25 Imprinting is a form of behavior that is restricted to birds.is often used in the training of adult animals.occurs during a specific time in young animals.always involves the sense of sight.
26 If a young song sparrow is raised in isolation in a soundproof chamber, it will sing a nearly normal song when it is mature. However, it will be able to sing more variations of the song if it is allowed to hear other birds sing as it grows. These findings indicate thatthe ability of song sparrows to sing is a learned behavior.song sparrows use classical conditioning to teach themselves to sing.sounds produced by other birds cause young song sparrows to sing.song development in this species involves both innate behavior and learning.
27 After a young duck imprints on a nonliving model of an adult duck, the young duck will then imprint on its mother.then imprint on any real adult duck.follow only that model.follow any other kind of model.
28 Geese that are exposed to a moving box during the first two days after hatching will imprint on the box. Geese that are totally isolated from any moving objects during the same period will never imprint on anything. These results show thatyoung geese must see some type of box to imprint correctly.the first two days after hatching are a critical period for imprinting in geese.geese have an instinctive tendency to avoid moving, box-shaped objects.geese must be exposed to their mother more than two days after hatching to imprint on her.
29 A circadian rhythm is a cycle that is related to the phase of the moon.is related to the temperature of the air.has a daily pattern.has a seasonal pattern.
30 Migration is a behavior that is usually influenced by changing seasons.the phase of the moon.the rise and fall of tides.the time of day.
31 The Australian burrowing frog spends the hot, dry summer months underground, sealed in a cocoon. The behavior of this frog during these months is best described asa circadian rhythm.a ritual.territoriality.dormancy.
32 An animal is most likely to enter into dormancy when it is advantageous to be active.resources are most difficult to find.food is very plentiful.the weather is very mild.
33 Animals are least likely to migrate out of an area where there is little or no seasonal change in weather.food becomes scarce during part of the year.competition for resources increases during part of the year.winters are very cold and snowy.
34 Which of the following is NOT a type of social behavior? courtshiphabituationaggressioncompetition
35 The members of a society belong to at least two species.exhibit a type of social behavior.act independently for each individual’s benefit.are usually unrelated to one another.
36 It is advantageous for grazing mammals to gather in groups because groups can make the available food resources last longer.can migrate more easily than individuals can.are more difficult for predators to locate than individuals are.offer greater protection from predation.
37 Closely related species often look similar but have courtship behaviors that are slightly different. One function of courtship in such species would be toincrease competition between the species.increase communication between the species.ensure that mating occurs between members of the same species.promote the evolution of new species through interbreeding.
38 In some species of balloon flies, males spin balloons of silk and carry them while flying. If a female approaches one of the males and accepts his balloon, the two will fly off to mate. This type of behavior is an example ofaggression.territorial defense.courtship.language.
39 The resources that an animal protects in its territory can include all of the following EXCEPT food.nesting sites.potential mates.predators.
40 An animal can benefit most by defending a territory if that territory has more resources than surrounding areas.that territory has many predators.there are more than enough resources in that territory for all competitors.the animals it defends against do not use the same resources.
41 Competition for limited resources can involve each of the following EXCEPT rituals.circadian rhythms.displays.aggression.
42 Dolphins communicate with one another mainly through sound.visual displays.chemical signals.pheromones.
43 A pheromone is a type ofvisual signal.sound signal.chemical messenger.defensive display.
44 What would be the best way for an animal to communicate its ownership of an area’s resources to other individuals that visit the area when the owner is not around?Use colors and patterns on its body as visual displays.Produce sound signals while patrolling the area.Leave pheromones near the boundaries of the area.Show aggression when approached by other individuals.
45 Animals that use language are those that have the greatest capacity for innate behavior.behavioral cycles.habituation.insight learning.
46 Nocturnal animals that have a poorly developed sense of smell are most likely to communicate by sound signals.visual displays.pheromones.chemical signals.
47 Natural selection favors the evolution of any behavior that is adaptive and influenced by genes. TrueFalse
48 Some birds navigate by detecting Earth’s magnetic field. TrueFalse
49 A mammal will begin to shiver when its body temperature drops below a certain point. Therefore, low body temperature is a stimulus for shivering behavior.TrueFalse
50 Learned behaviors appear in fully functional form the first time they are performed. TrueFalse
51 When a marsupial embryo crawls into its mother’s pouch to complete its development, it is exhibiting an innate behavior.TrueFalse
52 An “invisible fence” delivers a mild shock to a dog each time the dog tries to leave a defined area. Through classical conditioning, the dog eventually learns to avoid the shock by staying inside the area.TrueFalse
53 A cat that runs into the kitchen when it hears a can being opened shows that its behavior has been modified through reasoning.TrueFalse
54 Imprinting involves both innate and learned behavior. TrueFalse
55 Young salmon use their sense of sight to imprint on the stream in which they hatch. TrueFalse
56 Most bats sleep during the day and hunt or forage at night Most bats sleep during the day and hunt or forage at night. This activity pattern in bats is an example of a migration cycle.TrueFalse
57 Animals exhibit social behavior when they interact with members of different species. TrueFalse
58 When related individuals help each other survive and reproduce, they decrease their own evolutionary fitness.TrueFalse
59 Competition is most likely to occur when the resources in an area are limited. TrueFalse
60 Some animals produce pheromones as a type of chemical signal. TrueFalse
61 Animals of species X live near waterfalls, where noise levels are high due to the falling water. Most predators of species X hunt by using vision. Therefore, chemical signals would be the best way for members of species X to communicate with each other while minimizing their vulnerability.TrueFalse