2Outline What are the general properties of photosynthesis ? How is solar energy captured by chlorophyll ?What kinds of photosystems are used to capture light energy ?What is the molecular architecture of photosynthetic reaction centers ?What is the quantum yield of photosynthesis ?How does light drive the synthesis of ATP ?How is carbon dioxide used to make organic molecules ?What is photorespiration ?
3The Sun - Ultimate Energy 1.5 x 1022 kJ of sunlight energy falls on the earth each dayBiological energy comes from the sun.1% is absorbed by photosynthetic organisms and transformed into chemical energy.~5% uv, ~45% vis, ~50% IR6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2.1011 tons of CO2 are fixed globally per year.
421.1 What Are the General Properties of Photosynthesis? General AspectsPhotosynthesis occurs in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts - structures involving paired folds (lamellae) that stack to form "grana".The soluble portion of the chloroplast is the "stroma".The interior of the thylakoid vesicles is the "thylakoid space" or "thylakoid lumen".Chloroplasts possess DNA, RNA and ribosomes.
521.1 What Are the General Properties of Photosynthesis? Figure Schematic diagram of an idealized choloplast.
621.1 What Are the General Properties of Photosynthesis? Figure 21.1 Electron micrograph of a chloroplast.
7Photosynthesis Consists of Both Light Reactions and Dark Reactions The light reactions, associated with the thylakoid membranes, capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy in the form of reducing potential (NADPH) and ATP with evolution of oxygen. HOH -- > O2 , NADP -- > NADPH + H+ and ADP + Pi -- > ATPThe dark reactions, located in the stroma, use NADPH and ATP to drive the endergonic process of hexose sugar formation from CO2 in a series of reactions.CO2 + NADPH + ATP -- > carbohydrate
8Photosynthesis Consists of Both Light Reactions and Dark Reactions NADPH andATP made.NADPH andATP used.Figure The light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
9Water is the Ultimate e- Donor for Photosynthetic NADP+ Reduction The reaction sequence for photosynthesis in green plants:2H2O + 2NADP+ + xADP + xPi →O2 + 2NADPH + 2H+ + xATP + xH2OPhotosynthesis provides the oxygen on which we depend.A More Generalized Equation for Photosynthesis:CO H2A → (CH2O) A H2OHydrogen Hydrogen Reduced Oxidizedacceptor donor acceptor donorIn photosynthetic bacteria,H2A can be H2S or other oxidizable substrates, like isopropanol:
1021.2 How Is Solar Energy Captured by Chlorophyll? Chlorophyll is a photoreactive pigment with an isoprene-based sidechain.It has a planar, conjugated ring system - similar to porphyrins.Mg2+ is coordinated in the center of the planar conjugated ring structure.A long chain alcohol, phytol, group confers membrane solubility.Aromaticity makes chlorophyll an efficient absorber of light.Light absorption promotes an electron to a higher orbital, enhancing the potential for transfer of this electron to a suitable acceptor.
1121.2 How Is Solar Energy Captured by Chlorophyll? Figure 21.5Structures (a) and absorption spectra (b) of chlorophyll a and b. The phytyl side chain of ring IV provides a hydrophobic tail to anchor the chlorophyll in membrane protein complexes.Since the absorption spectra for a and b differ, plants that possess both can harvest a wider spectrum of incident energy.
1221.2 Large Rings Similar to Chlorophyll Heme and Corrin Structures
13Accessory light-harvesting pigments increase the possibility for hν absorption Figure 21.6Structures of representative accessory light-harvesting pigments in photosynthetic cells.(a) β-Carotene, an accessory light-harvesting pigment in leaves.(b) Phycocyanobilin, a blue pigment found in cyanobacteria.
14Absorbances in the Visible Spectrum Chlorophylls and the accessory light-harvesting pigments photosynthetic cells.
15Light Event TermsResonance Energy Transfer: energy transfer between photoreceptor molecules.Photoexcitation: Chl -- > Chl*Energy transduction: Chl* -- > Chl+Photooxidation: 2 HOH -- > O2 + 4 H+ + 4 ePhotoreduction:NADP+ + 2 H+ + 2 e -- > NADPH + H+Photophosphorylation:ADP + Pi -- > ATP using PSII, cyt bf and PSICyclic-Photophosphorylation:ADP + Pi -- > ATP using cyt bf and PSI only
16Possible Fates for Light Energy Absorbed by Photosynthetic Pigments Each photon represents a quantum of energy.Each quantum of light energy has 4 possible fates:1) Loss as heat. Energy can be dissipated as heat through redistribution into atomic vibrations within the pigment molecule.2) Loss as light. A light-excited electron can return to a lower orbital, emitting a photon of fluorescence.3) Resonance energy transfer. Excitation energy can be transferred to a neighboring molecule.4) Energy transduction. The excitation energy changes the reduction potential of the pigment, making it an effective electron donor.
17Possible Fates for Light Energy Absorbed by Photosynthetic Pigments Figure 21.7Possible fates of the quantum of light energy absorbed by photosynthetic pigments.
18Light energy, hv Electromagnetic energy: E = hν = hc/λ 1 mol of photons = 1 Einstein (varies with λ)Example calculation in kJ/mol at 400 nm: Einstein = (6.62x10-34 J-sec) (3x108 m/sec) (109 nm/m) (1/400 nm) (6.02x1023) = J/mol = 300 kJ/mol.Likewise at 700 nm: 1 Einstein = 171 kJ/molThe amount of energy in 1 Einstein depends on λ.
19Emerson’s Red Drop Phenomenon - 1930 The quantum yield of photosynthesis drops for λ >680 nm.Quantum yield = O2 evolved/photon.Photosysnthesis is not linear with light intensity. There is a saturation effect limited by the number of photosynthetic units available.
20Other DiscoveriesHill discovered that Oxygen came from water and not CO2.hv, no CO2Chloroplasts + H2O + Fe > O2 + H+ + Fe2+1950 – Arnon showed that chloroplasts generated ATP. NADPH was not transported to the mitochondria and used in oxidative phosphorylation.1952 – Duysen postulated two photosystems, both driven by light < 680 nm but only one driven by light > 680 nm.PSI generates a weak oxidant and a strong reductant.PSII generates a strong oxidant and a weak reductant.
21Photosynthetic Units Consist of Many Chlorophyll Molecules but Only a Single Reaction Center The photosynthetic unit (quantosome) consists of several hundred light-capturing chlorophylls, and other accessory pigments plus a pair of special chlorophylls in the reaction center.Light is captured by one of the "antenna chlorophylls" and routed from one to the other until it reaches the reaction center chlorophyll dimer that is photochemically active. See FigureOxidation of chlorophyll leaves a cationic radical ion, Chl•+, whose properties as an electron acceptor are important to photosynthesis.
22Photosynthetic Units Consist of Many Chlorophyll Molecules but Only a Single Reaction Center Figure Schematic diagram of a photosynthetic unit.
2321.3 What Kinds of Photosystems Are Used to Capture Light Energy? Oxygenic phototrophs have two distinct photosystems: PSI (P700) and PSII (P680)PSI systems have a maximal red light absorption at 700 nm and use ferredoxins as terminal electron acceptors.PSII have a maximal red absorption at 680 nm and use quinones as terminal electron acceptors.Chloroplasts given light at 680 and 700 nm simultaneously yield more O2 than the sum of amounts when each is used alone.All chlorophyll is protein-bound – as part of either PSI or PSII or light-harvesting complexes (LHCs).
24PSI and PSII Participate in the Overall Process of Photosynthesis What do PSI and PSII do ?PSI provides reducing power in the form of NADPH.PSII splits water, producing O2, and feeds the electrons released into an electron transport chain that couples PSII to PSI.Electron transfer between PSII and PSI pumps protons for chemiosmotic ATP synthesis.Essentially, electrons flow from H2O to NADP+, driven by light energy absorbed at the reaction centers.Light-driven phosphorylation of ADP to make ATP is termed photophosphorylation.
25PSI and PSII Participate in the Overall Process of Photosynthesis Figure Roles of the two photosystems, PSI and PSII.
26PSI and PSII Participate in the Overall Process of Photosynthesis Events in photosystem I (PSI) Chl700PSIAoox hv Aoox Aored Aored- Chl > Chl700* ----> Chl > Chl PCred PCred PCred PCox+Aored- is a strong reductant, e to NADP+.Plastocyaninox+ is a weak oxidant, e from Cyt6f.
27The Z Scheme Figure 21.11 The Z scheme of photosynthesis. (a) A diagrammatic representation.
28PSI and PSII Participate in the Overall Process of Photosynthesis Events in photosystem II (PSII) Chl680PSIIPheoox hv Pheoox Pheored Pheored - Chl > Chl680* ----> Chl > Chl Zred Zred Zred Zox+Pheophytinred- is a weak reductant, e to PQ.Zox+ is a strong oxidant, e from HOH O2
29The Pathway of Photosynthetic Electron Transfer Is Called the Z Scheme The electron carriers are arranged as a chain, according to their standard reduction potentialsThe arrangement resembles the letter “Z”.Components of – the Z scheme:Pheo = Pheophytin (2H+ replace Mg++ in Chl)PQ = plastoquinone (two: PQA and PQB).PC = plastocyanin (Cu++ protein ~10 kdaltons)."F"s = ferredoxins (several, aka Fd).Ao = a special chlorophyll a.A1 = a special PSI quinone (phylloquinone ??).Cytochrome b6/cytochrome f complex is a proton pump with a Q cycle similar to mito. Complex III.
30The Z Scheme Figure 21.11 The Z scheme of photosynthesis. Water:plastoquinoloxidoreductasePlastocyanin:ferredoxinoxidoreductaseFerredoxin:NADP+oxidoreductasePlastoquinol:plastocyaninoxidoreductaseFigure The Z scheme of photosynthesis.(b) The functional relationships among PSI, PSII, the cyt bf complex, and the ATP synthase in the thylakoid membrane.
31How Does PSII Generate O2 From H2O? The oxidation of H2O to O2 is chemically difficult.The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) is a large globular protein domain on the lumenal side of the D1 subunit of PSII.The active site of the OEC contains a cube-like metal cluster of four Mn++ ions, one Ca ion, and five O atoms bridging the Mn atoms.This cluster is held in place by Glu, Asp, and His residues of D1 and a Glu from CP43, a chlorophyll-containing inner subunit of PSII (see Figure 21.17).Electron removal from H2O molecules at the cluster (one from each Mn++) facilitates O2 formation.
32How Does PSII Generate O2 From H2O? Figure 21.17Structure of the PSII oxygen-evolving complex (OEC).Four Mn atoms (red, A-D) and a Ca atom (green) form the water-splitting metal cluster of the OEC.Bridging O atoms are purple.
33Oxygen Evolution Requires the Accumulation of Four Oxidizing Equivalents in PSII When isolated chloroplasts that have been held in the dark are illuminated with very brief flashes of light, O2 evolution reaches a peak on the third flash and every fourth flash thereafter.The interpretation of this observation: The O2 evolving complex of PSII (P680) cycles through five oxidation states.1 e- and 1 proton are removed in each stepOxygen (O2) is released in the fifth step and two more molecules of H2O are bound.The net of this cycle: 2H2O oxidized to O2 + 4H+.
34Oxygen Evolution Requires the Accumulation of Four Oxidizing Equivalents in PSII Figure 21.12Oxygen evolution requires the accumulation of four oxidizing equivalents in PSII (a) O2 evolution after brief light flashes.(b) The cycling of the PSII reaction center through five different oxidation states, S0 to S4. One e- is removed photochemically at each light flash.
35Electrons Flow From Pheophytin in the Z Scheme Via Plastoquinones Figure 21.13The structures of plastoquinone A and its reduced form, plastohydroquinone (or plastoquinol). Plastoquinone A has nine isoprene units and is the most abundant plastoquinone in plants and algae.Plastoquinone (PQ) exists as a pool within the chloroplast membrane. Because of its lipid nature, plastoquinone is mobile within the membrane and shuttles electrons from PSII to the cytochrome b6f complex.
36Electrons from PSII Are Transferred to PSI via the Cytochrome b6f Complex The cytochrome b6f complex is a large multimeric protein possessing 26 transmembrane α-helices.This complex is homologous to the cytochrome bc1 complex of mitochondria.The purpose of this complex is to mediate the transfer of electrons from PSII to PSI and to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane.Plastocyanin (PC in the Z scheme, Figure 21.11) is a small copper-containing protein that carries electrons from cytochrome b6f to PSI.The copper in PC cycles between the reduced Cu+ and oxidized Cu2+ states in this transfer.
37Electrons from PSII Are Transferred to PSI via the Cytochrome b6f Complex Structure of the cyanobacterial cytochrome b6f complex.The heme groups are red; the iron-sulfur clusters are blue. The upper bundle of α-helices defines the transmembrane domain.
38How Do Green Plants Carry Out Photosynthesis ? The structure of a light-harvesting complex (LHC) has been determined.LHC1 is a supercomplex of 16 distinct protein subunits and 200 prosthetic groups.Four LHC1 subunits form an arc around one side of the PSI reaction center.A second LHC (LHC2) binds to another side.The many Chl molecules and other light-harvesting molecules of the supercomplex form an integrated network for highly efficient transfer of light energy into P700.
39How Do Green Plants Carry Out Photosynthesis? Figure 21.19View of the plant PSI-LHC1 supercomplex, from the stromal side of the membrane.Chlorophylls are green, lipids are red.
4021.5 What Is the Quantum Yield of Photosynthesis? The quantum yield of photosynthesis is defined as the amount of product formed per equivalent of light input.i.e., the amount of O2 evolved per photon.Four photons per reaction center - 8 total - drive the evolution of 1 O2, reduction of 2 NADP+, and the translocation of 12 H+.Current estimates suggest that 3 ATPs are formed for every 14 H+ translocated.Thus (12/14)3 = 2.57 ATP should be synthesized from an input of 8 photons of light.
41Building the H+ Gradient pH gradient: ΔpH (~8.0 stroma:4.9 lumen)potential gradient: vDue to a Mg++/Cl- antiport most of the charge gradient is lost and ΔpH is the major contributor.Calc ΔG where ΔpH = 3.1 and Δψ = 0.05 v at 25o.ΔG = 2.3(8.314)(298)(3.1) + (1) (96480)(0.05)ΔG = (5698)(3.1) + (96480)(0.05)ΔG = = kJ/molThis is similar to the value found in the mito.
4221.6 How Does Light Drive the Synthesis of ATP? PhotophosphorylationThe transduction of the electrochemical gradient into the chemical energy of ATP is carried out by the chloroplast ATP synthase, more properly called the CF1CF0-ATP synthase.Electron transfer through the proteins of the Z scheme drives the generation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane.Protons pumped into the lumen of the thylakoids flow back out, driving the synthesis of ATP.CF1-CFo ATP synthase is similar to the mitochondrial ATP synthase.
4321.6 How Does Light Drive the Synthesis of ATP? Figure Mechanism of photophosphorylation. Photosynthetic electron transport establishes a proton gradient that is tapped by the CF1-CF0 ATP synthase to drive ATP synthesis.
44Cyclic Photophosphorylation Generates ATP but Not NADPH or O2 The dark reactions need 2 NADPH : 3 ATP to effect carbohydrate synthesis. So, extra ATP is needed beyond that provided by PSII and PSI.ATP provided by cyclic photophosphorylation depends only on PSI, not on PSII.In cyclic photophosphorylation, the photo-excited electron removed from P700 returns to P700 in a pathway indicated by the curved line in FigureIt diverts the activated electron lost from PSI back through the PQ pool, the cytochrome b6f complex, and plastocyanin to re-reduce P700+.
45Cyclic Photophosphorylation Generates ATP but Not NADPH or O2 Figure 21.21The pathway of cyclic photophosphorylation by PSI.
4621.7 How Is Carbon Dioxide Used to Make Organic Molecules? Fixation of CO2 is a unique ability of plants, algae, etc.Melvin Calvin at Berkeley in 1945 showed that Chlorella could take up 14CO2 and produce 3-phosphoglycerate.What was actually happening was that CO2 was combining with a 5-C sugar to form a 6-C intermediate.This breaks down to two 3-P-glycerates.Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate is the CO2 acceptor in CO2 Fixation.
47Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate The CO2 AcceptorFixation is accomplished by ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (oxygenase) = RUBISCO.Probably the world's most abundant protein.Figure 21.22, DaltonsStudy the reaction in FigureRubisco is activated when carbamylated (CO2 added to Lys201) and with Mg++ bound.RuBP (substrate!) is inhibitor and must be released from inactive rubisco by rubisco activase. Carbamylation and Mg then activate.
48Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate is the CO2 Acceptor in CO2 Fixation Figure 21.22Molecular graphic of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, Rubisco.The enzyme consists of 8 equivalents each of two subunits. Clusters of four small subunits (orange and red) are located at each end of the symmetric octamer formed by the L subunits (light and dark green).The active sites are revealed in the ribbon diagram by bound ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (yellow).
49Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate is the CO2 Acceptor in CO2 Fixation The ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) reaction. Mg2+ at the active site aids in stabilizing the 2,3-enediol transition state (I) for CO2 addition and in facilitating the C-C bond cleavage that leads to product formation.
50Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate is the CO2 Acceptor in CO2 Fixation The Rubisco reaction, cont.: Ribulose bisphosphate + CO2 yields two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. This pathway is referred to as a three carbon pathway since the first compound isolated after CO2 fixation contains three carbon atoms.
51Conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate The 3-phosphoglyceratemade by Rubisco is then converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate before the sugar rearrangements occur.
52The Calvin-Benson Cycle The Calvin CycleIncludes the reactions that transform 3-P-glycerate into a triose.This is the principal CO2 fixation pathway in nature. Rubisco is the enzyme that fixes CO2.A large part of the Calvin pathway includes a duplication of some pentose phosphate pathway reactions which will be seen in a later chapter.For reactions, see Figure
53The Calvin-Benson Cycle The Calvin CycleThe transketolase and transaldolase catalyzed reactions are important in rearrangement of sugar structures.*Transketolase reactions require TPP•Mg++. Here, the TPP•Mg++ mediated reactions are involved in two carbon transfers.*Transaldoldase reactions use an active site Lys and are involved in three carbon transfers with the same stereospecificity that was seen with the aldolase in glycolysis.
54CO2 Fixation into Carbohydrate Proceeds Via the Calvin-Benson Cycle
56CO2 Fixation into Carbohydrate Proceeds Via the Calvin-Benson Cycle Figure
57CO2 Fixation into Carbohydrate Proceeds Via the Calvin-Benson Cycle Figure
58The Carbon Dioxide Fixation Pathway Is Indirectly Activated by Light The activities of key Calvin cycle enzymes are coordinated with the output of photosynthesis.In effect, these enzymes respond indirectly to light activation.Rubisco activation requires:Light, CO2, Mg++, and pH ≥ 7.4Light induces movement of Mg2+ ions from the thylakoid vesicles into the stroma.Light energy generates reducing power.Reduced ferredoxin and NADPH.
59The Carbon Dioxide Fixation Pathway Is Indirectly Activated by Light In presence of light, electron flow through PSII, Cyt b6f and PSI cause protons to be pumped into the lumen. The resulting charge gradient drives the Mg++/Cl- antiport and Mg++ moves into the stroma. And the H+ gradient leaves the stroma basic which activates Rubisco.Electron flow through PSII, Cyt b6f and PSI also produces reduced ferredoxin and e flow through ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase yields reduced thioredoxin which is an activator of several Calvin cycle enzymes (-S-S- to –SH HS-).
60The Carbon Dioxide Fixation Pathway Is Indirectly Activated by Light Figure Light-induced pH changes in chloroplast compartments. These pH changes modulate the activity of key Calvin cycle enzymes.
61Activation of Rubisco Rubisco---Lys-NH2 (Site is blocked by R-1,5-BP). Light and Rubisco activase cause dissociation of R-1,5-BP and carbamoylation of Lys:Rubisco--Lys-NH2 + CO2 Rubisco--Lys-NH-CO2-Still, Mg++ must be present for activation.Rubisco--Lys-NH-CO2- · ·Mg++ is active.
62The Carbon Dioxide Fixation Pathway Is Indirectly Activated by Light Figure The pathway for light-induced reduction of some Calvin cycle enzymes. Light-generated reducing power (Fdred = reduced ferredoxin) provides e- for reduction of thioredoxin (T) by ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR).Thioredoxin activated enzymes include ribulose-5-P kinase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase and Rubisco.
6321.9 Photorespiration – The use of O2 by Rubisco As already noted, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase catalyzes an alternative reaction in which O2 replaces CO2 as the substrate added to RuBP.This oxygenase reaction diminishes plant productivity because it leads to loss of RuBP, the CO2 acceptor.The products of the oxygenase reaction are 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoglycolate.Dephosphorylation and oxidation convert phosphoglycolate to glyoxylate.Transamination yields glycine.
64The Oxygenase Activity of Rubisco These reactions are compartmented amongchloroplasts(C), peroxisomes(P) and mitochondria(M).
67The Hatch-Slack Pathway for CO2 Fixation – a C-4 pathway Not an alternative to Calvin cycle, nor even a net CO2 fixation pathway.Rather, it traps CO2, then transports the CO2 from the O2-rich leaf surface to interior cells where O2 won't compete in the Rubisco reaction.Oxaloacetate traps and malate transports the CO2.Read about Crassulacean acid metabolism, an alternative to the C4 pathway used by succulent plants.
68Tropical Grasses Use the Hatch-Slack Pathway to Capture Carbon in CO2 Fixation Figure 21.29Essential features of the compartmentation and biochemistry of the Hatch-Slack pathway of carbon dioxide uptake in C4 plants.
69Tropical Grasses Use the Hatch-Slack Pathway to Capture Carbon in CO2 Fixation Reactions of the Hatch-Slack pathway
70Tropical Grasses Use the Hatch-Slack Pathway to Capture Carbon in CO2 Fixation Different plants have different mechanisms for moving CO2 into the bundle sheath cells. The Hatch- Slack uses four enzymes in the C4 pathway.1. PEP carboxylase: H2O + PEP + CO2 -- > OAA + Pi2. Malate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent)3. Malic enzyme (NADP+ dependent)also called malate dehydrogenase decarboxylating4. Pyruvate:phosphate dikinaseATP + Pi -- > ADP + PPiADP + E -- > AMP + E~PE~P + Pyruvate -- > PEP + EPPi -- > 2 Pi