8 Early SpringOver wintered colonies need to be checked for a laying queen and a supply of honey and pollen( which is protein) --if short of honey a supply of sugar water must be added along with a pollen substitute- re-queen if required.
9 Early Spring Feeding Sugar syrup – 1 part sugar to 1 part water Pollen substitute – make a patty using Drivert sugar ( bakers sugar ), Mega Bee , mineral salts and a little bit of essential oil. This goes on the top frame.T
11 Brood diseases ( Brood disease will be covered in a later lesson ) American FoulbroodEuropean FoulbroodChalk broodVarro MiteTracheal MiteSmall Hive BeetleWax moth( Brood disease will be covered in a later lesson )
12 Strength of the colony The objective should be to have the colony reach it’s peak of strength at the time the main honey flow begins---the preparation for this should begin the preceding late summer or early fall. Those 3 requirements—a good queen-plenty of pollen- and plenty of honey !
13 Package bees or a new queen The beekeeper must take into consideration these time periods1. 15 to16 days for a new queen to hatch2. 21 days for a worker bee to hatch3. 24 days for a drone bee to hatch
14 Mid Spring ManagementHives should be checked for swarm cells-- they may be removed to keep the bees from swarming or if the beekeeper wants to increase the number of hives, then the beekeeper should leave them in and hope to be around when they swarm– it’s best to have extra hive bodies on hand.
17 Summer Management April/May FEED- FEED- FEED Reverse your Hive bodies Make sure there is food in the brood chamberMake sure that your queen is laying - look for eggs and larvaGet your Supers ReadyPrepare to SPLIT or Add Hive Body to prevent swarmingu
18 Summer Management How to Check your Queen Presence of Queen Learn to recognize Eggs, Larva, Capped Brood vs. Capped HoneyEggs situated in normal positionWhat a Queen Looks LikeQuantity of BroodBrood Should be on several framesFrames should be about 2/3 full of brood – corners have honeyQuality of BroodBrood pattern should be solid – not a mixture of capped and uncappedin the same area.Check on honey and pollen stores as a bad brood result fromlack of food!
22 Summer Management How to Check your Queen For a Productive Hive – Queen MUST produce 1500 to 2000 eggs/dayReplace the Queen with a newly mated QueenKill the Queen and allow the colony to make a new one (~40 days to Eggs)If two very weak hives, kill the Queens, combine hives, re-queen
29 Summer ManagementJune – JulyCheck hives for any signs of robbing, weak colonies, swarming or anything out of the ordinary.Add supers as required—if top brood chamber is ¾ full—it’s time to add a super
34 SwarmingSwarming is a great way to increase the number of your colonies– but not so good for your honey crop that year.
35 Swarming usually occurs from May thru July—but can vary !
36 Why do bees swarm Who knows ? Some say it’s due to overcrowding. Some say the old queen is bad—but if she is bad how can she start a new colony ?Other reasons are improper ventilation, starvation or supersedure impulse.Swarming is the bee’s natural way of dividing colonies to create new ones.
38 Swarm ControlOne method of swarm control is to remove the swarm cell located on the bottom of the frame The Demaree method separates the queen from the brood which relieves congestion in the brood chamber. A queen excluder is placed between the two hive bodies .
39 Catching a swarmThe old queen leaves the hive with a number of worker bees. They usually gorge themselves with honey ( except for the queen - she has to stay slim and trim)Scout bees look for a new home– now it’s up to the beekeeper to give them that new home.
42 Honey Extraction August-Sept When the first super is 2/3 capped over it’s time to take it off and replace it with another super—providing that the bees are still bring in nectar.
43 Removal of frames Use a smoker Shake or use a brush Bee Go or other chemicalsUse a leaf blowerRemember– you’re the beekeeper– what works best for you !
44 Using a smokerThe smoker was featured last week –but remember– the type of fuel used in a smoker contains pollutants and toxic gases – use fuels that are derived from natural sources ( wood shavings , dried grass , pine cones etc.)A few puffs of smoke at the entrance and under the top cover are sufficient(as a precaution–carry a fire extinguisher)
45 Wear protective clothing How fast can you run ?
46 Shaking the frame Use your brush Once the frame is removed give it a few good shakes to dislodge the beesORUse your brushGently brush the bees off the frame( I do this in front of the hive )
47 Honey Extraction Chemicals BeeGo/Honey Robber (n-butyric anhydride) Sprinkle on Cloth and place over superNasty smell drives bees down out of superRisk of contaminating Honey!
48 Honey Extraction Bee Blower Leaf blower will work works well and is convenient
50 Honey extractionPlace frames in an empty super after bees are cleaned off. When all hives have been emptied of capped frames you are ready to begin extraction.When all of the frames have been extracted you can put them back on the hive and let the bees clean them out.
51 Honey ExtractionDe-capping the CombHot KnifeUncapping Fork
52 Drain the Cappings/save the wax Honey ExtractionDrain the Cappings/save the wax
56 Wax Production A valuable by-product of beekeeping! DO NOT USE OLD Brood Comb!
57 Uses of bee’s wax 1. cosmetics 2. candles for churches 3. wax for beekeeper products
58 Hive inspection How and When to Check Your Hives Is too much Inspection a Bad Thing?
59 Hive Inspection Nothing Short of a “Home Invasion” Beginning Beekeepers Inspect their Hives TOO MUCH !Goal is to get familiar with “outside” to tell you whatis happening on the “inside”How does the colony behave?Are there a lot of bees coming and going?Are there dead bees/larva on the landing board?Is there a strange smell?How much does your hive weigh?
60 Hive Inspection Nothing Short of a “Home Invasion” IF YOU SEE # of Bees seems to be decreasingDead Bees, larva, or pupae on the landing boardDetect a strange or foul odorBees that are unusually temperamentalRobbers, predators, or leaking honeyLethargic, aimless, or deformed beesANYTHING out of the OrdinaryOPEN IT UP!
61 Hive Inspection Nothing Short of a “Home Invasion” Visually Inspect your Hives Exterior OftenBUT Removing Frames:Disrupts Hive activity for 4-8 hoursAgitates the BeesBreaks Propolis SealsDamages comb and disrupts HoneyRisks Heating or Chilling BroodChanges the Hive Humidity – harm larvaInvites Predators into the HiveRISKS HARMING THE QUEEN
62 Routine Maintenance Be Non-Invasive! Lift Lid and Slide Inner Cover Slightly to the Side To:Add sugar water to the feedersAdd Pollen patties or mite treatmentsWeigh Hive To:Determine Hive Health (Honey, Comb, Bees are heavy)Look for Swarm Cells by Lifting Hive Body and Inspecting allFrame Bottoms at the same timeLook of Mites by use of Sticky Board
63 Summary Remember-you’re the beekeeper What we have covered 1. strength of the colony2. swarming3. adding supers4. using the smoker5. honey extraction6. hive inspectionRemember-you’re the beekeeper