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DERMAPTERA (earwigs) GRYLLOBLATTODEA (iceworms, rock crawlers) MANTOPHASMATODEA (African rock crawlers )

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Presentation on theme: "DERMAPTERA (earwigs) GRYLLOBLATTODEA (iceworms, rock crawlers) MANTOPHASMATODEA (African rock crawlers )"— Presentation transcript:

1 DERMAPTERA (earwigs) GRYLLOBLATTODEA (iceworms, rock crawlers) MANTOPHASMATODEA (African rock crawlers )

2 Embiodea(=Embioptera) Zoraptera Dermaptera Grylloblattodea Mantophasmatodea ? Orthoptera Plecoptera Phasmatodea prognathous head Aquatic nymphs Ovipositor lost Terrestrial nymphs Silk glands No silk glands Cerci modified to forceps Cerci not modified Saltatorial hind legs Hind legs not saltatorial

3 Dermaptera Number of Species Common names Distinguishing characteristics Other features Typical habitats Hexapod Orders >1900 earwigs Derma - skin, ptera - wing - cerci - large forceps - fossorial - damp, dark - females show parental care

4 Myths about earwigs

5 Earwig Food

6

7 Dermaptera - Cerci

8 Dermaptera – Life cycle Female lays eggs in top few cm of soil Hatch in 1 week Female tends eggs & nymphs for 2 weeks Overwinter in soil Mate and complete 1 more cycle Mate

9 Suzuki, J.Ins.Sci. 10:2-8 Effect of maternal care

10 Suzuki, J.Ins.Sci. 10:2-8

11 Female preference in offspring feeding - high quality food - dyed green - Low quality food - no dye Mas et al, Proc. R. Soc. B

12 Kohno, Res. Pop. Ecol. 39:11-16 Matricide 86.7%

13 Giant earwig – St. Helena

14 Grylloblattodea Number of Species Common names Distinguishing characteristics Other features Typical habitats Hexapod Orders 25 Iceworms, rock crawlers Gryllo - cricket, blatto - roach - near melting snow, litter in alpine forests -multi-segmented cerci -wingless -live in cold habitats -restricted to Northern Hemisphere -omnivorous

15 Grylloblattid - Habitat

16

17 Grylloblattid – Life cycle Female lays eggs in soil or moss Hatch in 1 month to 3 years Nymphs – 8 instars (about 7 years) Females sexually mature after 1 year Mate

18 Grylloblattid Distribution

19 Mantophasmatodea Number of Species Common names Distinguishing characteristics Other features Typical habitats Hexapod Orders 8 African rock crawlers, gladiators, heelwalkers Manto - mantid, phasmato - stick insect -xeric, rocky habitat -wingless -enlarged arolium -closest relative - Grylloblattodea -carnivores

20 Discovered in amber

21 Mantophasmatodea - Predatory adaptations Large eyes Spines on forelegs

22 Mantophasmatodea - Life cycle Eggs hatch - juveniles develop in winter (wet) months Autumn rains (May) Mating Eggs laid in egg pod -resists desiccation

23 Mantophasmatodea - Relationship to other orthopteroid orders Egg cases (roaches, mantids) Predatory adaptations (mantids) Wingless (grylloblattids) Prolonged mating (phasmids) Substrate communication (stoneflies) Male eaten after mating (mantids) Male much smaller than female (mantids)

24 Mantophasmatodea - Distribution

25 Mantophasmatodea - Distribution Grylloblattids Mantophasmatodea

26 Embiodea(=Embioptera) Zoraptera Dermaptera Grylloblattodea Mantophasmatodea ? Orthoptera Plecoptera Phasmatodea prognathous head Aquatic nymphs Ovipositor lost Terrestrial nymphs Silk glands No silk glands Cerci modified to forceps Cerci not modified Saltatorial hind legs Hind legs not saltatorial Notoptera = Grylloblattodea + Mantophasmatodea


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