Presentation on theme: "Lipid Catabolism CH339K. Fats are stored in lipid droplets Lipid droplets in a rat adipocyte."— Presentation transcript:
Lipid Catabolism CH339K
Fats are stored in lipid droplets Lipid droplets in a rat adipocyte
Human Serum Albumin g/l of blood 67 kDal 585 amino acids Can bind up to 10 fatty acids Different binding sites have different affinities Also binds thyroid hormones
FADL – An E. coli Fatty Acid Transporter 1)b-Barrel Transmembrane Protein 2)14 Antiparallel b-sheets 3)N-terminal “hatch” domain 4)Conformational change on substrate binding opens hatch a)Ribbon drawing of intact protein b)“Hatch” domain c)Cutaway view to show hatch in central channel d)Cytoplasmic space-filling view to show hatch plugging channel van den Berg, B. (2005) Current Opinion in Structural Biology 15(4):
Fate of Glycerol Not wasted Shuttled to liver in blood Catabolized there Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis
Transport into the Mitochondrion (Carnitine-Acylcarnitine Translocase)
-oxidation Mitochondrial matrix Oxidizes fatty acyl CoA’s at the carbon Sequentially cleaves off acetyl CoAs Acetyl CoA is processed through Krebs and ETC
2 Systems for -oxidation ≥ 12 carbons: TFP – last 3 enzymes in multienzyme complex < 12 carbons 4 soluble matrix enzymes
Palmitate weighs ~256 g/mol (about 42% more than glucose) Oxidation yields 108 ATPs, versus 32ish for glucose (about 340% more)
Monounstaurated Fatty Acids Need one extra enzyme Converts double bond 1
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Need two extra enzymes Reduce conjugated double bonds to a single double bond 1 2 1
Odd-numbered Fatty Acids Left with 3 carbons Add inorganic carbon Convert to succinate Throw into Krebs Cycle
Pernicious Anemia B12 is produced only by several genera of bacteria, obtained from animal food daily requirement is about 2-3 g/day Gastric mucosa produces a protein called intrinsic factor Lack of intrinsic factor results in impaired B12 absorption, pernicious anemia, death in 1-3 years Original treatment (1920’s) was ½ lb. of raw liver daily Concentrated liver juice (yum) became available in 1928 B12 isolated in 1948, synthesized in 1973 Now treated with large doses (several mg) B12 Sources: fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, especially liver and mollusks (clams, oysters, etc.)
Liver Juice! Ummm!!!
(ACC = Acetyl CoA Carboxylase) Regulation
Peroxisomes -Oxidation also occurs in peroxisomes (major site in plants) In critters, peroxisomes are primary organelles for oxidation of very long chain and branched fatty acids (cerotic acid, phytanic acids)
Catalase Glucose Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Acyl CoA Oxidase
Catalases Once again, a heme-containing enzyme Overall reaction: 2 H 2 O 2 ⇄ O H 2 O First step: produces porphyrin cation radical Second step: HOOH acts as electron donor to produce O 2 and return enzyme to resting state.
Catalase is a fun enzyme to assay Mr. Bubble of the enzyme world Staphylococcus aureus
Plants don’t store much fat, but seeds often do.
Ω-Oxidation ER of vertebrates Medium chain FAs
-oxidation Herbivores consume a lot of chlorophyll. Chlorophylls have a long hydrophobic tail. Those tails are split off as part of digestion to form phytanates.
-oxidation (Peroxisomes) Phytanates have methyl groups Can’t do -oxidation Dietary phytanates Dairy Fish Animal fats
Refsum’s Disease Phytanoyl CoA Hydroxylase deficiency Can also digest phytanic acid by -oxidation, but only ~10 mg/day Typical diet contains 50 mg Builds up in myelin sheath Also screws up vitamin A metabolism Demyelinating neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, deafness, anosmia, cranial nerve degeneration
Ketone Body Generation During fasting or carbohydrate starvation, oxaloacetate in the liver is used for gluconeogenesis. Acetyl-CoA then doesn’t enter Krebs cycle. Acetyl-CoA converted in mitochondria to ketone bodies, Ketone bodies are transported in the blood to other cells Converted back to acetyl-CoA for catabolism in Krebs cycle, to generate ATP.
-oxidation in reverse
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Primarily in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) Low insulin = low glucose transport into cells Liver thinks it’s starving Ketone body production ramps up Blood pH drops into danger zone