Presentation on theme: "Raising Game Birds. Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed HS ‐ LS2 ‐ 8. Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual."— Presentation transcript:
Raising Game Birds
Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed HS ‐ LS2 ‐ 8. Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.
Bell Work / Objectives Identify the important factors in hatching and brooding game birds. Identify the important factors in growing game birds. Explain the management of game bird breeder stock. Identify the important factors in feeding game birds. Explain the important components of disease control in game birds.
Terms Set Hatch Incubate Embryo Incubator Incubation Cover Crop
Raising Game Birds Why do people raise game birds? What does everyone who raises game birds have in common?
What are the important factors in hatching game bird eggs? I recommended that beginners start with day-old chicks or eggs purchased from a reputable game bird breeders. Be sure to get a guarantee on a product that is free of disease. List of game bird breeders available from: –State Department of Natural Resources –Local extension service –There are very few breeders in NM. Most birds are purchased out of state the day after hatching.
Hatchery Floors should be concrete. Sloped to large drains. Walls & ceilings constructed of water resistant material. All this to facilitate cleaning and disinfection. Temperature controlled environment. –Maintained temp. between 65 and 80 degrees. Evaporative cooling in summer to cool air & increase humidity.
Hatchery Embryo development needs. –Adequate oxygen levels. –Removal of carbon dioxide. Main function of ventilation. –Control temperature. –Dilute airborne microorganisms during hatch.
Hatching Equipment Incubator or hatcher –The purpose of the incubator is maintain the suitable environment to maximize successful hatching of fertile eggs. –Have an automatic temperature and humidity control. –Large units rotate the eggs.
Care of eggs Wash hands with disinfectant soap prior to handling eggs. Fresh eggs can be stored a short time before setting. Set means being placed in the incubator.
Care of eggs Temperature at which egg is stored determines how long they can be stored prior to set. Stored eggs do not hatch as early as fresh eggs. Allow addition hatching time with the stored eggs. Storage time and temp. will affect hatching percentage.
Care of eggs Only set nest-clean eggs. Do not set dirty, cracked, thin-shelled, misshapen, or abnormal eggs. These hatch poorly. They may contaminate other eggs or chicks.
Incubation Proper incubation is not difficult. Wash all equipment with detergent solution between hatches. Operate equipment for 24 hours prior to egg setting to stabilize the environment. Record wet and dry bulb temperature twice per day. (temp. in relationship to humidity)
Incubation Eggs can be set large end up or horizontally. Eggs should be turned every 2 to 4 hours during first 2/3 of incubation. Never turn during hatching period.
Examination of eggs Candle eggs after days of incubation. Candle again before transferring eggs to hatcher (3 – 4 days prior to hatching).
Examination of eggs Remove eggs that are clear or contain blood rings. These type of eggs will not hatch. These are either infertile or the embryo did not develop properly.
Transfer to hatcher Transfer eggs to the hatcher 3 – 4 days prior to hatching. Adjust temperature on hatcher for the appropriate species of egg being hatched. When the hatch is complete – count, sort and place chicks in clean and sanitized boxes. Do not remove chicks before they are dry. Remove as soon as dried because they will dehydrate if left in the hatcher.
What is involved in brooding game birds? Artificially brooding game birds has become very successful. Factors that must be addressed during this stage. –Heat sources Heat lamps, hot water or steam pipes, or stoves. –Light and ventilation
Heat sources Cool-room brooding –Provide heat source with an adjacent area at a lower temperature. –Hover area has a temperature adjusted to 95 degrees during first week. –Decrease temperature 5 degrees per week until room temperature is achieved. –Advantage of this system is feather will be faster and temperature regulation is easier.
Heat sources Warm-room brooding –Heating system maintains entire house at desired temperature. –Start temperature at 90 degrees. –Decrease 5 degrees as chicks get older.
Light and Ventilation It is very important to be properly lighted during first week. Chicks learn to eat and drink during this time period. During this time pens are lighted 24 hours a day. After first week, reduce artificial light to 12 hours a day or use natural daylight.
What are the important factors in growing game birds? Cages and Pens –Chukars & quail can be raised in all-wire cages kept inside a building. –1 square foot per bird for chukars. –½ square foot for quail. –Outside pens should permit good drainage of water. –Wind protection, lower walls boarded to 20 – 24 inches.
What are the important factors in growing game birds? Waterers & Feeders –A continuous supply of fresh, cool drinking water needs to be provided. –Avoid puddling around waterers. –There are many feeder designs for a grower to select from. –Prevent feed from becoming wet.
What should be done to manage game bird breeder stock? Breeder stock of a game bird operation requires extra attention. Cages and Pens –Pheasants can be housed in wire colony cages. –Mating ratio of 10 females per 1 male. –Colony 2 feet wide by 6 feet long by 1.5 feet high. –Rule of thumb is to maintain 25 to 30 square feet per bird.
What should be done to manage game bird breeder stock? Equipment –Nest boxes should be included in the pens. –Place boxes in protected areas. Reduce incidence of dirty eggs. Prevents bacterial contamination. –Box is 2 feet wide by 6 feet long by 1 foot tall will serve 24 females. –Place artificial eggs in nests to encourage birds to use boxes rather than the ground.
What should be done to manage game bird breeder stock? Care of eggs –Proper handling and care of eggs are important to maintain hatchability. –Store eggs in a cool room at 50 to 60 degrees and 70% humidity.
What should be done to manage game bird breeder stock? Recommendations –Keep nest areas dry. –Collect eggs a minimum of 3 times a day. –Do not spray insecticides around pens or store room. –Clean slightly soiled eggs with sandpaper. –Do not used heavily soiled eggs.
What should be done to manage game bird breeder stock? Lighting –Game birds can be induced to lay eggs. –Can lay at any time of the year. –Provided the birds have been exposed to day- lengths of less than 12 hours a dayfor a 6 week period. –Place artificial lights around pen to stimulate early egg production.
What factors should be considered when feeding game birds? Common poultry feeds that are properly balanced in energy, amino acids, vitamins and minerals can be fed to game birds. Laying rations should never be fed to day- old chicks, it is too high of calcium. Place grit in a separate container. Grit is needed fro proper digestion. Size of grit depends on size of bird.
How can I control disease problems in game birds? Most diseases are caused by microorganisms or viruses. The greatest threat to game birds is diseases.
How can I control disease problems in game birds? Good disease management practices: –Avoid introducing live birds. Safe way is hatching eggs or day-old chicks to keep for breeding stock. –Buy chicks from known sources Reputable dealers raise disease free birds. –Dispose of dead birds Incinerator Disposal pits Direct burial
Review / Summary What are the important factors in hatching game bird eggs? What is involved in brooding game birds? What are the important factors in growing game birds? What should be done to manage game bird breeder stock? What factors should be considered when feeding game birds? How can I control disease problems in game birds?