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©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. www.clemson.edu/olweus Salmon River Middle School Training Presenters David Bish Donna Herne Connie Gerow.

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Presentation on theme: "©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. www.clemson.edu/olweus Salmon River Middle School Training Presenters David Bish Donna Herne Connie Gerow."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Salmon River Middle School Training Presenters David Bish Donna Herne Connie Gerow Kelley Patenaude Jennifer Hughes Danielle Chapman

2 2 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Dan Olweus, Ph.D. Sue Limber, Ph.D. Program Developer U.S. Developer

3 “Promising Program” by Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development (University of Colorado) Most Innovative Program of the Year in the U.S. (2009) by CHADD Ttofi & Farrington (2008, 2009, 2011) meta-analyses of bullying prevention programs -programs “inspired by the work of Dan Olweus worked best” and that future efforts should be “grounded in the successful Olweus programme” 3 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Recognition of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program

4 4 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Program Components

5 5 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. OBPP is... a systems change program designed for all students (K-12) preventive and responsive focused on changing norms and restructuring the school setting research-based

6 6 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. OBPP IS NOT... curriculum (a set of lessons to teach) conflict resolution or peer mediation classroom management technique anger management program suicide prevention program short term effort (1 or 2 years)

7 7 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Required OBPP Materials OBPP Schoolwide Guide (SWG) Video: Overview of OBPP OBPP Teacher Guide (TG) Video: 6 scenarios for class discussion Olweus Bullying Questionnaire (OBQ) Document Symbol Video Symbol SP Available In Spanish

8 8 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. What? When/ Where? When/ Where? Why? How? Who is Bullied? Who is Bullied? Who Bullies? Who Bullies?

9 9 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Olweus Definition of Bullying: “Bullying is when someone repeatedly and on purpose says or does mean or hurtful things to another person who has a hard time defending himself or herself.”

10 10 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Three Key Components of Bullying Behavior 1.Involves an aggressive behavior 2.Typically involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time 3.Imbalance of power or strength

11 11 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. BULLYING = PEER ABUSE

12 12 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Types of Bullying Direct hitting taunting name calling Indirect rumors exclusion cyber bullying

13 13 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Distinguishing Among… Bullying “Rough-and-Tumble Play”- friendly teasing Real Fighting TG Doc 3

14 Why address bullying? 1. For students and their futures (mental & physical health) 2. For a healthy school climate (academic achievement) 3. For the larger community 4. Risk management for schools 5. It’s a wise investment 6. It’s the law ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 14

15 OBPP is for ALL Students Those who are bullied Those who bully others Those who are “bystanders” – witnessing purposeful aggression The “workplace” or school environment is impacted by unaddressed bullying behavior, making it toxic for students and adults alike. ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 15

16 16 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Children Involved in Bullying: Risk Factors and Effects 1.Children who are bullied 2. Children who bully others 3. Children who are both bullied and bully others

17 17 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Children Who Are Bullied Cautious, sensitive, quiet, & withdrawn Anxious, insecure, have low self-esteem Physically weaker than peers (boys) Physically mature earlier (girls) Have few friends--find it easier to associate with adults

18 18 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Effects of Being Bullied Lower self-esteem Depression & anxiety Absenteeism & lowered school achievement Thoughts of suicide Illness

19 Bullying and Suicide Children who are bullied are more likely to have: –Depressive symptoms –High levels of suicidal thoughts –Attempted suicide Klomek et al. (2008) study of high school students: –All types of victimization were related to depression and suicidality. –The more types of bullying experienced, the higher the risk. Hinduja & Patchin (2010) study of middle school students: –Youth involved in bullying or cyber bullying as an offender OR victim had more suicidal thoughts and more attempts. –Children who had been bullied had higher rates than those who bullied others. –Experience with bullying explains only a small amount of the variance in suicidality ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 19

20 20 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Children at Higher Risk of Being Bullied: Children with disabilities, special needs, and health problems Children who are obese Children who are LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) TG Doc 5

21 Common Myths About Children who Bully “Students who bully are loners.” “Students who bully have low self-esteem.” 21 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S.

22 Popular Students May Use Bullying Behaviors To Maintain Power Who are the most powerful students in your school? How can we help students use their power to help? ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 22

23 23 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Concerns About Children Who Bully Children who bully are more likely to: —Get into frequent fights —Be injured in a fight —Steal, vandalize property —Drink alcohol, smoke —Be truant, drop out of school —Report poorer academic achievement —Perceive a negative climate at school —Carry a weapon

24 24 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Children Who Bully Bullying may be part of a conduct-disordered behavior pattern. This pattern may continue into young adulthood. Olweus study: Those who bullied others in middle school were 4 times as likely to have 3 or more convictions by age 24.

25 Children Who are Bullied and Bully Others Tend To... Share characteristics with bullied children Share characteristics with students who bully Be less effective in bullying than other children who bully Behave in ways that cause irritation and attract negative attention ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 25

26 Physical bullying - assault Gender bullying - sexual harassment or assault, dating abuse, domestic violence Intimidating for gain - extortion Rumors/Lies - defamation of character Bullying based on race, national origin, sex, or disability (civil rights violations) Bullying disabled persons - disability harassment Cyber bullying - harassment by communication; stalking Sexting - child pornography Bullying Behavior May Violate Civil or Criminal Law ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 26

27 27 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Effects of Bullying on Bystanders Bystanders may feel: –Afraid –Powerless to change the situation –Guilty for not acting –Diminished empathy for bullied students over time

28 What Roles Do Students Play In Bullying Situations? B C D H G E F A Start the bullying and take an active part Take an active part, but do not start the bullying Support the bullying, but do not take an active part Like the bullying, but do not display open support Dislike the bullying and think they ought to help, but don’t do it Dislike the bullying, help or try to help the bullied student Student Who Is Bullied Students Who Bully Followers Supporters Passive Supporters Disengaged Onlookers Possible Defenders TG, p ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Watch what happens, don’t take a stand

29 29 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Group Mechanisms in Bullying Social contagion Weakening inhibitions against aggression Decreased sense of individual responsibility Gradual changes in the view of bullied student(s)

30 School Risk Factors for Bullying Lack of supervision during breaks Students have indifferent or accepting attitudes Staff have indifferent or accepting attitudes towards bullying ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 30

31 31 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Adults Who Bully Teacher to Student Teacher to Teacher Parent to Teacher Teacher to Parent Administrator to Teachers/Staff Teachers/Staff to Administrators Community Members to Administrators

32 32 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Misdirections in Bullying Prevention & Intervention Simple, short-term solutions “Program du jour approaches” Group treatment for children who bully Anger management or self-esteem enhancement for children who bully Zero tolerance policies for bullying Selecting inappropriate supplemental materials Mediation/conflict resolution to resolve bullying issues

33 33 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Schoolwide Guide Video Part 2: Overview of the OBPP Program Components

34 34 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Reduction in bullying and antisocial behavior Improvements in classroom social climate “Dosage” affects success Timing of effects The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Key Findings in Norway

35 35 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Evaluations in the United States South Carolina—1 st in the U.S. Philadelphia, PA Washington State Pennsylvania

36 36 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. OBPP Principles imply… 1.Adults are responsible 2.Clear & consistent message 3.Short & long-term focus 4.Follow model with fidelity 5.OBPP should become part of everyday life at school

37 37 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. OBPP Principles imply… 6. Student involvement in changing climate 7. Student learning about bullying 8. OBPP is not peer mediation or conflict resolution 9. OBPP is not a classroom management technique

38 38 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Program Components

39 39 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. School-Level Components

40 40 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Overview of School-Level Components 1. Establish a Bullying Prevention Coordinating Committee 2. Conduct committee and staff trainings 3. Administer the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire 4. Hold staff discussion groups 5. Introduce the school rules against bullying 6. Review and refine the school’s supervisory 7. Hold a school kick-off event to launch the program 8. Involve parents

41 41 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. The OBQ Locations of hotspots Patterns for girls & boys Insights into school climate Information to assess supervision Adult & student attitudes about bullying Impact of bullying on students Valuable planning tool

42 Dear Colleague Letter: Bullying and Harassment Are the civil rights of a targeted student also being violated? – Title VI, CRA of 1964; prohibits discrimination on basis of race, color, or national origin – Title IX, Educational Amendments, 1972; prohibits discrimination on basis of sex – Section 504 of RA of 1973; Title II of ADA of 1990; prohibits discrimination on basis of disability ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 42

43 43 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. about bullying We will not bully others. We will try to help students who are bullied. We will try to include students who are left out. If we know that somebody is being bullied, we will tell an adult at school and an adult at home. SP TG Doc 8

44 Student Reporting “If we know that somebody is being bullied, we will tell an adult at school and an adult at home.” ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. 44

45 45 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Positive Consequences to Reinforce Positive Behavior Why are positive consequences critical? Who receives them? Types of behavior to reinforce Types of positive consequences Tips on use of positive consequences

46 46 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Use of Negative Consequences Why aren’t positive consequences enough? Guidelines for use of negative consequences Types of negative consequences

47 SRC Bus Drivers

48 You are the first one to greet the children each day How often do you wonder what kind of morning or school day has the child had already before coming on to your bus? If you have a bad start to the morning yourself, do you think the children can tell? How do you interact with the children as they are stepping on to the bus?

49 As a bus driver, it’s not important to know exactly what happened to the child before entering your bus. It is important to know that some children need a friendly smile and/or “Hello” when they step on to the bus.

50 What does a friendly smile and/or “Hello” do for a child? **Builds character and self esteem **

51 If someone were to be driving past you, how would the bus look?

52 During Class Meetings, we hope to improve bus behavior Please answer the questionnaire to help us lead classroom discussion with students during the month of September and October. Thank you Bus Drivers for all that you do to transport the students safely

53 SRC Cafeteri a Staff

54 What does a friendly smile and/or “Hello” do for a child? **Builds character and self esteem **

55 It may be hard to have that friendly smile and/or “Hello” because children do not always have the best manners.

56 The Olweus Committee’s goal is to raise awareness of kind behavior in the cafeteria.

57 During Class Meetings, we hope to improve behavior in the cafeteria Please answer the questionnaire to help us lead classroom discussion with students during the month of September and October. Thank you Cafeteria Staff for all that you do to feed the students so that they can think clearly in the classroom

58 58 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Classroom-Level Components

59 59 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Classroom-Level Components 1.Post and enforce school wide rules against bullying 2.Hold regular class meetings 3.Hold meetings with students’ parents

60 60 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Class Meetings Video

61 61 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Maintaining Positive Classroom Management OBPP is not a classroom management program. BUT, helping teachers hone behavior management skills will help to implement the program. Use of Positive Classroom Management Checklist

62 62 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Support Materials for Class Meetings Teacher Guide, Schoolwide Guide- Video & Documents Class Meetings That Matter (K-5) (6-8) (www.violencepreventionworks.org)www.violencepreventionworks.org Cyber Bullying Prevention Curriculum (3-5 & 6-12) (www.violencepreventionworks.org)www.violencepreventionworks.org OBPP Companion Bibliography (www.bullyingpreventioninstitute.org)www.bullyingpreventioninstitute.org National Anti-Bullying Campaign Materials (www.stopbullying.gov)www.stopbullying.gov

63 Support Materials for Class Meetings (continued) 63 Teaching Tolerance Lessons and Videos (www.teachingtolerance.org)www.teachingtolerance.org Anti-Defamation League Curriculum Materials (www.adl.org)www.adl.org GLSEN – Materials and Videos – No Name Calling Week (www.glsen.org)www.glsen.org Welcoming Schools – Human Rights Campaign (www.welcomingschools.org)www.welcomingschools.org ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S.

64 64 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Classroom-Level PARENT Meetings Build connection and community Help parents learn about OBPP Held 2-3times/year (recommended) Resources: – Sample outline for first meeting – Topics for additional meetings

65 65 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Individual-Level Components

66 66 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Individual-Level Components 1.Supervise students’ activities 2.Ensure that all staff intervene on-the-spot when bullying occurs 3.Hold meetings with students involved in bullying 4.Hold meetings with parents of involved students 5.Develop individual intervention plans for involved students

67 67 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Why Adults Don’t Always Intervene: Have difficulty recognizing bullying Fail to recognize the importance of intervening Uncertain how best to intervene Lack of time

68 68 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Individual Interventions Video “On-the-Spot” Interventions

69 69 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. On-the-Spot Interventions: The “Teachable Moment” 1.Stop the bullying 2.Support student who has been bullied 3.Name bullying behavior & refer to school rules 4.Engage the bystanders 5.Impose immediate & appropriate consequences 6.Take steps to ensure bullied student will be protected from future bullying

70 70 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Individual Interventions Video “What if you don’t witness the bullying?”

71 71 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. When There Are Suspicions of Bullying… Intensify your observations of the child Confer with colleagues Talk to or survey students Collect information from students Contact parents

72 72 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Individual Interventions Video “What follow-up is needed?”

73 73 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Individual Interventions Video “Follow-Up” with Parents

74 74 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Understanding Parents’ Perspectives…. Three tip sheets for parents… – of students who are bullied – of students who bully others – of students who witness bullying For Committees – OBPP resources to support parental involvement SP TG Docs 23, 25, 26

75 75 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Community-Level Components

76 76 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Community-Level Components 1. Involve community members on the BPCC 2. Develop partnerships with community members to support your program 3. Help spread anti-bullying messages and principles of best practice throughout the community

77 77 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. Remember…… Stopping bullying takes a team effort. You play a critical position on the team. Change happens in small increments but can have positive long-term impact for us all!

78 78 ©2014 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, U.S. © 2014 Susan Limber, PhD; Vicki Flerx, PhD; Nancy Mullin, MEd; Jane Riese, LSW; and Marlene Snyder, PhD This presentation is based on the work of Dan Olweus, PhD. Use of this presentation is restricted to persons trained by the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program and groups they work with for the express purpose of training schools, parents and community groups about the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program model. Appropriate credit to the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program must appear on all presentation materials. No other use or changes are permitted without prior written permission from the authors. For further information, please contact: Marlene Snyder, PhD at or call


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