2Use be + past participle to form the passive. Passive (1) and its usesFORMUse be + past participle to form the passive.
3present simple activeWe find oil and gas beneath the ground or sea.present simple passiveOil and gas are found beneath the ground or sea.present continuous activeThe police are questioning two men.present continuous passiveThe men are being questioned by the police.past simple activeTeachers trained Aztec boys to fight.past simple passiveAztec boys were trained to fight.
4present perfect active Tourism has harmed some countries.present perfect passiveSome countries have been harmed by tourism.will activeWe will choose a new class representative on Monday.will passiveA new class representative will be chosen on Monday
5Use of the passiveto move important information (the object of the active sentence) to the beginning.Two men are being questioned by the police.when we want to be impersonal and not mention the name of the person who performs the action.We often use the passive in scientific or technical processes.Oil and gas are found beneath the ground or sea.when it is obvious who performed the action, e.g. teachers, or we do not want to use a general subject e.g. people, they.Aztec boys were trained to fight.The missing children have been found safe and well.more often in formal speech and writing than in everyday speech.
6transitive and intransitive Verbs which have an object are called transitive verbs; verbs without an object are intransitive.Only transitive verbs can be made passive.
7SUBJECTVERBOBJECTTransitiveIlostmy walleton my way to schoolIntransitiveswim-everyday
8Use bywhen it is important to know the 'agent' or person who performed the actionSome countries have been harmed by tourism.only when it is really necessary.The two men were arrested. (by the police - this is obvious)
9Use with for objects which perform actions. The game was played with a ball of solid rubber.
10Read the text on the following slide and underline all the subject, verb and object structures. Then rewrite the text using present simple passive verbs. Leave out any unnecessary words.
11How a toy car is madeIn the factory, they use a computer to plan the exact shape of the car. They then feed this computer program into a machine, and produce a plastic prototype. Then they produce the actual toy cars in a factory abroad. As far as construction is concerned, they make the bodies of the cars from plastic. They add small electric motors to the cars, and then they paint them. They also attach licence plates. Quality control inspects the cars and then they wrap them and pack them into cardboard boxes. They ship the cars to Britain.
12a As a first step,. b Then. and. c The actual. d The bodies. e Small a As a first step,.... b Then .... and.... c The actual.... d The bodies.... e Small Licence.... f At the next stage,…. g Finally,..... Britain.
13Answersa As a first step, a computer is used to plan the exact shape of the car. b Then this computer programme is fed into a machine and a plastic prototype is produced. c The actual toy cars are produced in a factory abroad. d The bodies are made from plastic. e Small electric motors are added to the cars, and they are painted. Licence plates are also attached. f At the next stage, the cars are inspected, then they are wrapped and packed into cardboard boxes. g Finally, the cars are shipped to Britain.
14Rewrite the sentence using a present perfect passive with by Rewrite the sentence using a present perfect passive with by. Leave out any unnecessary words.
15a Cheaper air travel has made possible the global expansion in tourism a Cheaper air travel has made possible the global expansion in tourism. b Countries all over the world have experienced a growth in tourism. c Millions of tourists have visited the popular Mediterranean resorts since the 1970s. d Recently tourists have chosen more distant locations in Africa, Asia and South America. e Mass tourism has badly affected some countries.
16Answersa The global expansion in tourism has been made possible by cheaper air travel. b A growth in tourism has been experienced by countries all over the world. c The popular Mediterranean resorts have been visited by millions of tourists since the 1970s. d Recently more distant locations in Africa, Asia and South America have been chosen by tourists. e Some countries have been badly affected by mass tourism.
17f International companies have built large hotels on unspoilt coastline. g These developments have disturbed local wildlife.h Tourists have damaged coral reefs and other habitats.i Such developments have also displaced local people.j Some governments have developed the idea of ecotourism to counteract some of these problems.
18Answersf Large hotels have been built on unspoilt coastline by international companies.g Local wildlife has been disturbed by these developments.h Coral reefs and other habitats have been damaged by tourists.i Local people have also been displaced by such developments.j The idea of ecotourism has been developed by some governments to counteract some of these problems.
19Passive (2) Reporting verbs The passive is often used with say, believe, understand, know and similar verbs used in reporting speech to avoid an impersonal they or people.People say that John Wilson lives in New York.John Wilson is said to live in New York.
20Other verb forms can also be reported in this way They say John Wilson is travelling in Africa.John Wilson is said to be travelling in Africa.People say John Wilson has arrived in Australia.John Wilson is said to have arrived in Australia
21Have/Get something done When someone does some work for us, we can use have something doneLast year I had new tiles put on the roof.I'm having my hair cut this afternoon.
22The same construction can describe bad luck caused by an unspecified person. Peter had his car stolen last week.And then he had his leg broken playing football
23Using get instead of have in the previous above would be more informal. Using get can also suggest managing to do something difficult.It was difficult but we got the painting done in the end.
24Needs doingThis is an idiomatic way of expressing a passive sentence where a thing or person needs some kind of action.The floor is filthy. It needs to be cleaned.The floor is filthy. It needs cleaning.
25Verbs and prepositions The preposition stays with the verb in a passive sentence.People shouted at the Prime Minister during his speech.The Prime Minister was shouted at during his speech.
26Other problemsBe born is a passive form but does not have an obvious passive meaning.I was born near Kyoto.Make (when meaning force) is followed by to in the passive.They made David work hard.David was made to work hard.
27Because the agent is unimportant, unknown or obvious, it is often not included. If we want to say who does the action we use by.This letter was delivered this morning.This letter was delivered this morning by courier.
28Choose the most suitable verb form in each sentence a) Their new house hasn't been finished/wasn't finished yet. b) The robbers were arrested/have been arrested as soon as they left the bank. c) Sue told us her baby is born/had been born two weeks earlier than expected. d) If there is too much snow, the match has been cancelled/will be cancelled. e) By the time we got there, the rain had stopped/had been stopped.
30f) When were you told/have you been told about the new rules? g) Most of the passengers were swimming/were swum easily to the shore.h) The winning horse was ridden/was riding by Pat Murphy.i) I looked again for the old man, but he was vanished/had vanished.j) I don't think that you will be asked/are being asked to show your passport.
32Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
33a) Last Thursday we appointed a new marketing manager. wasA new last Thursday.b) Smith Ltd are supplying our company with furniture.suppliedOur company by Smith Ltd.