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April 2001www.qimpro.com1 QFD Quality Function Deployment An Introduction Qimpro Standards Organization

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Presentation on theme: "April 2001www.qimpro.com1 QFD Quality Function Deployment An Introduction Qimpro Standards Organization"— Presentation transcript:

1 April 2001www.qimpro.com1 QFD Quality Function Deployment An Introduction Qimpro Standards Organization

2 April 2001www.qimpro.com2 Session Topics Quality basics QFD basics QFD with other tools QFD need QFD model QFD matrices Further reading

3 April 2001www.qimpro.com3 Quality Basics Quality Defined –Fitness for purpose –Conformance to requirements –Fitness for purpose. Quality as Better Features and Reduced Defects Better Feature – Why you buy. Reduced Defects – Post purchase opinion.

4 April 2001www.qimpro.com4 Quality Quality is Customer Delight Product Features Defect Free Premium Pricing Premium Pricing Market Share Market Share Cycle Time Cycle Time Warranty Waste Revenue Costs Profit Customer SatisfactionCustomer Dissatisfaction Higher Quality Costs MoreHigher Quality Costs Less

5 April 2001www.qimpro.com5 Total Quality –All Products (Hardware, Software, Service) –All Functions (Manufacturing, Non-manufacturing) –All Customers (External, Internal, Hidden) –All Industries (Profit, Not-for-profit) Supplier, Organization, Customer.

6 April 2001www.qimpro.com6 Quality Management

7 April 2001www.qimpro.com7 Quality Management Financial Management –Financial Planning – Budget –Financial Control – Cost Control –Financial Improvement – Cost Cutting. Quality Management –Quality Planning – QFD, FMEA –Quality Control – SPC –Quality Improvement – CQI, Six Sigma.

8 April 2001www.qimpro.com8 Quality Planning Establish Quality Goals Identify the Customers Determine Customer Needs Provide Measurement Develop Product Features Develop Process Features Develop Process Controls.

9 April 2001www.qimpro.com9 Quality Function Deployment Yoji Akao Early 1980s - Mitsubishi’s Kobe shipyard US Experience - Xerox and Ford American Supplier Institute and Goal were responsible for bringing QFD into United States.

10 April 2001www.qimpro.com10 Q F D Basics Inputs: Customer wants and needs Technical parameters are determined which satisfies the customer wants Relationships are established between customer wants and technical parameters Permits analysis and determination of priority issues A planning Process Output: Key action issues for improved customer satisfactions.

11 April 2001www.qimpro.com11 QFDDFM DOE SPCSURVEY Feedback SelectStudySustain Feedback FTA QFD With Other Technical Tools

12 April 2001www.qimpro.com12 QFD - Need Threat to security comes from competition, rising costs and waste within organizations QFD helps organizations in becoming stronger, hence aids in survival and expansions Organizations become strong by either reducing its costs or increasing its revenues

13 April 2001www.qimpro.com13 QFD - Decreasing Costs QFD contributes to reduced costs by streamlining processes and reducing rework and waste It helps in focussing product and process development on the work that matters most to the customer

14 April 2001www.qimpro.com14 QFD - Increasing Revenues QFD contributes to increased revenues by effectively translating customer needs into the right product design or service. QFD helps in rapid product development by making key decisions early in the development process when cost of decision are low

15 April 2001www.qimpro.com15 Obstacles - Product Development Poor understanding of customer needs Failure to strategically prioritize efforts Willingness to take unmanageable risks Tendency towards unbuildable designs Over reliance on formal specifications Testing scenarios that fail to find defects.

16 April 2001www.qimpro.com16 System level design Subsystem level design Component design Manufacturing process concept design Manufacturing process design Delivery design Service design Delivery. Traditional Product Development

17 April 2001www.qimpro.com17 Traditional Product Development Each step is conceived as a unit with clear inputs and outputs Steps downstream are not supposed to start until results of the previous steps are well defined

18 April 2001www.qimpro.com18 Concurrent Process System Mfg. Process Concept Delivery Development Service Development Process Development Subsystem Component Delivery

19 April 2001www.qimpro.com19 QFD- Concurrent Engineering QFD supports concurrent engineering Team approach to develop top level HOQ matrix Focus on customer satisfaction Proactive approach (Japanese) - early changes Reactive approach (US) – post launch changes.

20 April 2001www.qimpro.com20 Q F D Model Relationships Competitive Technical Assessment Competitive Technical Assessment Operational/ Process Goals Operational/ Process Goals Processes Primary Needs Secondary Needs Tertiary Needs Relative Importance Complaints Competitive Comparison Actions Relationships

21 April 2001www.qimpro.com21 Q F D Model Relationships Competitive Technical Assessment Competitive Technical Assessment Operational/ Process Goals Operational/ Process Goals Processes Primary Needs Secondary Needs Tertiary Needs Relative Importance Complaints Competitive Comparison Actions Relationships

22 April 2001www.qimpro.com Gather VOC Focus groups –8 to 12 people –Facilitator develops conversation on wants and needs Interviews –Conducted by telephone or in person –To cover all wants and needs –No relative importance needed Mail Questionnaires –Low Cost –Strike rate 15-50% Product Clinics, Murmurs, Observations Root Wants.

23 April 2001www.qimpro.com Categorize VOC Analyze customer phrases to find out When, Where, Why and How the customer uses the product. –Example “I use the flash light for reading” Categorize customer phrases: –Customer Need - Icon mouse over –Substitute Quality Characteristics - % of correct identifications of icon by users –Function - Icon when clicked executes an operation –Reliability - Correct explanatory message is displayed.

24 April 2001www.qimpro.com Structure the Needs Arrange customer voices in natural groups Use Affinity Diagram –Use one card per voice –Use team action –Develop natural groupings –Group the groups –Title the group using customer words.

25 April 2001www.qimpro.com Arrange Customer Needs Designing the Perfect Over-The-Counter Coffee Cup –Cup should be insulated -cool so that it doesn't burn my hand –Lid should have a drink opening, one that is easy to remove and doesn't leave sharp edges –Should have both decaf and regular coffee –Should be hard to spill or tip over –Shouldn’t be flimsy so it squeezes in my hand and spills the coffee or pops the lid or collapses –The lid ought to fir tight- not come off easily.

26 April 2001www.qimpro.com Arrange Customer Needs (Contd.) Container –Lids Lid fits tight, remove without spill, opening for a drink, empty with lid on, prevents spill –Cups Cup stays cool, coffee stays hot, won’t spill/tip, doesn't leak, easy to hold Materials –Regular/ Decaffeinated –Aroma –Taste.

27 April 2001www.qimpro.com27 Q F D Model Relationships Competitive Technical Assessment Competitive Technical Assessment Operational/ Process Goals Operational/ Process Goals Processes Primary Needs Secondary Needs Tertiary Needs Relative Importance Complaints Competitive Comparison Actions Relationships

28 April 2001www.qimpro.com28 2. Competitive Evaluation Record customer perception –Importance to the customer –Customer satisfaction performance –Competitive satisfaction performance –Goal –Improvement ratio –Sales point –Raw weight –Normalized raw weight.

29 April 2001www.qimpro.com29 Q F D Model Relationships Competitive Technical Assessment Competitive Technical Assessment Operational/ Process Goals Operational/ Process Goals Processes Primary Needs Secondary Needs Tertiary Needs Relative Importance Complaints Competitive Comparison Actions Relationships

30 April 2001www.qimpro.com30 3. Processes and Relationships Customers are vague – they have a right to do so QFD helps in translating VOC E.g.. Easy command selection on a PC –Pull down menus –Icon based menu –Keyboard shortcuts What – How diagrams Confirm translations Identify relationships of processes Relationships can be inverse too!

31 April 2001www.qimpro.com Measurements Define measures –Voltage in volts –Time in minutes Define direction of goodness –The more the better (MTBF, Km/litre…) –The less the better (defects, speed of startup…) –Target is best (fitment of cam shaft, temperature etc…) Define Measurements –Describe how each measurement will be performed –Document each assumption

32 April 2001www.qimpro.com32 Q F D Model Relationships Competitive Technical Assessment Competitive Technical Assessment Operational/ Process Goals Operational/ Process Goals Processes Primary Needs Secondary Needs Tertiary Needs Relative Importance Complaints Competitive Comparison Actions Relationships

33 April 2001www.qimpro.com33 4. Impact Relationships Customer requirements are related to processes –No linkage or impact –Possibly linked –Moderately linked –Strongly linked 0,1, 3, 9 (10,7,5) Empty row – no process to address need Empty column – process does not satisfy need.

34 April 2001www.qimpro.com34 Q F D Model Relationships Competitive Technical Assessment Competitive Technical Assessment Operational/ Process Goals Operational/ Process Goals Processes Primary Needs Secondary Needs Tertiary Needs Relative Importance Complaints Competitive Comparison Actions Relationships

35 April 2001www.qimpro.com35 5. Competitive Assessment Determine priority in processes Determine competitor’s process performance Helps in determining process/operational goals.

36 April 2001www.qimpro.com36 Q F D Model Relationships Competitive Technical Assessment Competitive Technical Assessment Operational/ Process Goals Operational/ Process Goals Processes Primary Needs Secondary Needs Tertiary Needs Relative Importance Complaints Competitive Comparison Actions Relationships

37 April 2001www.qimpro.com37 6. Process Goals Determine process goals based on competition and priority Process goals are input to next matrix.

38 April 2001www.qimpro.com38 Q F D Model Relationships Competitive Technical Assessment Competitive Technical Assessment Operational/ Process Goals Operational/ Process Goals Processes Primary Needs Secondary Needs Tertiary Needs Relative Importance Complaints Competitive Comparison Actions Relationships

39 April 2001www.qimpro.com39 7. Actions Some QFDs determine actions in first matrix Optional.

40 April 2001www.qimpro.com40 Q F D Matrices Customer Requirements Design Requirements Customer Requirements Design Requirements Parts Requirements Process Requirements Parts Requirements Process Requirements Production Requirements Customer Satisfaction 1. Design 2. Details3. Process4. Production Important High risk New technology Important High risk New technology Important High risk New technology

41 April 2001www.qimpro.com41 Q F D Matrices MatrixWhatHow House of qualityVoice of customerTechnical performance measures Details/subsystem matrix Technical performance measures Piece-part characteristics Piece-part matrixPiece-part characteristics Process parameters Process design matrix Process parametersProduction operations

42 April 2001www.qimpro.com42 Reading Better designs in half the time, Bob King, GOAL/QPC QFD, Lou Cohen, Addison Wesley QFD, Richard Day.

43 April 2001www.qimpro.com43 Thank You


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