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VP-structure tt. The structure of VP VP AuxV´ VXP XP can be any phrase (including S´) that may complete V Predication HeadComplementation Modalisation.

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Presentation on theme: "VP-structure tt. The structure of VP VP AuxV´ VXP XP can be any phrase (including S´) that may complete V Predication HeadComplementation Modalisation."— Presentation transcript:

1 VP-structure tt

2 The structure of VP VP AuxV´ VXP XP can be any phrase (including S´) that may complete V Predication HeadComplementation Modalisation

3 The secondary verbal categories CategoryMembersAuxiliary VMorpheme Modality can, may, must, ought to shall, will -Ø Tense PresentØ-Ø/-s PastØ-ed Aspect Perfecthave-en Progressivebe-ing Voice Active ØØ Passive be-en

4 Affix-hopping ø-edcan-øhave-enbe-ingbe-enbreak TenseModalityPerfectProgressivePassiveLexV couldhavebeenbeingbroken

5 VP AuxV´ Tense AuxV Ø V look The construction of V-forms Morph -ed looked

6 VP AuxV´ Tense AuxV Ø Perfect AuxV have V break The construction of V-forms -en Morph had broken Morph -ed

7 VP AuxV´ Tense AuxV Ø Perfect AuxV have Progressive AuxV be V look The construction of V-forms Morph -ed-en Morph -ing Morph had been looking

8 The function of Aux: Modalisation A fancy term for the information that the speaker has to provide the listener with when describing a situation by means of a sentence: Tense provides information for identifying the situation in time Modality provides information for identifying the situation in space Aspect provides information for identifying the situation relative to other situations Voice provides information for identifying the situation in terms of its central participants

9 T i m e S HYPOTHETICAL NECESSARY E Event time = R Reference time = S Speech time = F ACTUALPOTENTIAL Utterance u carries the information that event e occur at E relative to R such that R precedes, coincides with, or succeeds S Hans Reichenbach (1947)

10 E The situation of John driving carefully R occurred at time E = R < S Last night S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e ‘John drove carefully last night’

11 S E The situation of John driving carefully R ‘John has driven carefully *last night’ occurred at time E < R = S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e = S

12 S E The situation of John driving carefully R ‘John had driven carefully 1)before the police appeared 2)until the police appeared 3)when the police appeared occurred at time E < R < S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e =1)

13 SE The situation of John driving carefully R ‘John had driven carefully 1)before the police appeared 2)until the police appeared 3)when the police appeared occurred at time E < R < S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e =2)

14 S E The situation of John driving carefully R ‘John had driven carefully 1)before the police appeared 2)until the police appeared 3)when the police appeared occurred at time E UNDEFINED R before S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e =3) R

15 S E The situation of John driving carefully R ‘John will drive carefully to occur at time E > R = S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e =S

16 S E The situation of John driving carefully R ‘John may drive carefully PERHAPS to occur at time E > R = S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e =S HYPOTHETICAL NECESSARY

17 S E The situation of John driving carefully R ‘John must drive carefully PERHAPS to occur at time E > R = S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e =S HYPOTHETICAL NECESSARY

18 S E The situation of John driving carefully R ‘John should have driven carefully has NOT occurred at E < R = S F ACTUALPOTENTIAL T i m e =S HYPOTHETICAL NECESSARY


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