Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Sex and Gender Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10 Sex and Gender Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Sex and Sexuality Sex is principally a biological distinction between males and females based on fundamental differences in their reproductive organs. Gender is based on what, given a person’s sex, are considered appropriate physical, behavioral, and personality characteristics. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Sexual Selves Sexuality is the ways in which people think about, and behave toward, themselves and others as sexual beings. Sexual Identities and Orientations Heterosexuality Homosexuality Bisexuality Asexuality Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Sexual Selves Sexual Scripts Generally known ideas about what one ought to do and what one ought not do as far as sexual behavior is concerned Different for males and females Social Constraints on Sexuality Culture and consent Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Sex and Consumption Everyday life has been sexualized to a certain degree. In a consumer society, sex is used to encourage consumption of all sorts of things that are not inherently sexual (like cars and toothpaste). Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Sexual Deviance What is considered deviant varies from place to place and from time to time. There are four criteria used to define a given form of sexual behavior as deviant: Degree of consent of those involved Nature of the person or the object involved in the sex act Nature of the action involved or the body part employed Place in which the sexual act takes place Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender: Femininity and Masculinity Hegemonic masculinity is linked to patriarchy. Emphasized femininity is a set of socially constructed ideas that accommodates the interests of the patriarchy. Transgender individuals move back and forth across the gender line. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender, Work, and Family One of the most studied issues in the field of gender is the relationship among gender, work, and family. The main concern is the ways in which the intersection of work and family varies by gender. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender, Work, and Family Separate Spheres The Industrial Revolution brought forth the separation of public and private spheres. “Cult of domesticity” Dual-Earner Households The area of interest is the way men and women use their time in the era of dual-earner families. Super Moms Pressures women to be “domestic goddesses” Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender and Education Educational Achievement and Attainment Gender differences in educational attainment generally favor females. Gender and the Hidden Curriculum The hidden curriculum are unofficial routines and structures through which students learn behaviors, attitudes, and values. Gender, Education, and Race Males and females of color have greater difficulties in school than do white males and females. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender and Consumer Culture Consumption, Work, and Family Women traditionally consumed for their families and to help them fulfill their responsibilities at home. However, as more women have entered the workforce their consumption patterns have changed. Advertising and Gender Much of advertising and marketing is targeted at either men or women, but rarely both. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender and Consumer Culture Women and Girls as Consumers Several events mark the development of a greater interest in girls as consumers, including the emergence of the department store, the celebration of Christmas, and increases in technology. Intersectionality in Gender and Consumption Being a woman intersects with race and class and other minority statuses to affect how and what women consume. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender and Sport Title IX of the Education Amendments of the Civil Rights Act (1972) Males participate in more organized sports than women, and men dominate coaching and administrative positions in sports. Sports serve to shape gender identity for men. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender Health and Mortality Women tend to have a significantly longer life span than men. However, women suffer more from illness and other health-related problems than men. The main gender differences in life span and health are biological, behavioral, and psychosocial. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender Crime and Deviance Crime and deviance are other areas in which clear gender differences exist. Across cultures, gender is the strongest predictor of crime (men and boys commit more). Reasons include family socialization, strain, and responses to adversity. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Social Change and the Globalization of Sexuality Globalization of Media Increasing Urbanization Global Network of “Sexperts” Globalization of Social Movements Increased Mobility Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Global Flows Related to Sex and Sexuality Sexual Minorities in Global Context An issue for sexual minorities in the context of globalization is the barriers that inhibit their movement around the world. Global Sex Industry Bars, dance clubs, massage parlors, the pornography industry, international hotel chains, airline companies, and the tourist trade create and help to meet the demand for sex labor around the globe. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Feminization of Labor Women and Informal Employment Informal employment includes temporary work without fixed employers, paid employment from home, domestic work for households, and industrial work for subcontractors. Feminization of Poverty and Female Proletarianization More and more women, in and out of the workforce, are falling below the poverty line. Women in Export Processing Zones Specialized industrial areas designed to draw foreign companies and capital investment. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Gender, War, and Violence Men are more likely to be killed or wounded in warfare than women. Women are more likely to be the noncombatant victims of organized collective violence. Rape and sexual assault are used as weapons of warfare. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Global Women’s Movement The history of the international women’s movement goes back to the late 1800s. It has focused on reproductive rights, labor issues, and sexual harassment. United Nations’ International Women’s year (1975) Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.