Egg Yolk (31%): 1.Latebra : The junction between discus germinal disk with egg yolk 2.Germinal Disk: Blastoderm stage of ovum cell 3.Concentric Ring of egg yolk 4.Vetelinne membrane : transparent membrane around egg yolk
Albumen (58%): Chalazae (3% of albumen): smooth thin layer that conjunction with egg yolk and chalazae, Inner thin layer (21% of albumen) Solid and thick of white egg (55%) Outer thin layer, conjunction with egg membrane shell
Egg Shell Mebrane : Fibrous & harsh Compose of protein that similar as well as hair or feather Consisted of : - Inner shell membrane - Outer shell membrane Inner shell is thin down than outer shell
Egg shell (11%): 1.Hard, to coverage the content of egg and to protect the embryo from physical & chemicals defect 2.Containing cuticle: - thickness : 10 – 30 micro meter - inhibit of microorganism penetration from the pore - to protect infiltration of other agent from outer egg shell.
Egg shell (11%): 3. The pores content be variant : around /egg, these function include: - respiratory: the embryo may breathe during incubation process - evaporate process - infiltration of outer liquor - the tickness depend on genetic factor, environment, temperature and diseases. 4. Pigment shell found in spongy layer 5. It consisted of: 94% Potassium Carbonate, 1% Magnesium Carbonate, 1% Calcium Phosphate, other organic component 4%
Composition of Egg yolk Protein of egg yolk : - ovovetelin : 2,4 gr (75%) as phosphoprotein / protein containing P - ovolivetin : 0,7 gr (25%), sulfur content is high Egg yolk : - Glyceride - Lecithin - Cholesterol * Pigment of egg yolk : Xantophyle
Composition of albumen Protein : - Ovo albumen: 75% - Ovoconalbumen : 3% - Ovoglobulin: 2% - Ovo mucoid - Ovomucin Vitamin : riboflavin/ slightly green
Composition of Eggshell Consisted of: Shell dan shell membrane Outer layer: cuticle Protein : collagen/ similarly with bone protein and cartilage Ca CO3 : 94% Mg CO3 : 1% Ca PO4 : 1% Organic matter : 4 % shell Membrane : % of the weight of egg shell - containing: protein, water & mineral - Protein : ovocreatine, with sulfur content about 1,5 – 3 kali higher than sulfur content in albumen
Composition of Water Fowl Egg Duck, Goose, Manila Duck (Entok) Moisture content slightly lower Fat content is higher Ducks need slightly higher temperature for embryo development
Handling of Egg Select the consumption egg and fertile egg Fertile Egg: - temperature > 26,7°C. The develop embryo blood spot vascular system as bee nest form (Hacch spot) its not consumable. - If the temperature is not stable, the embryo will be death because of contamination * Dirty egg: wash with warm water 43-51,7°C, dried as soon as possible, water should free from Fe (max :3 ppm)
Damage Egg 1. Reduce of weight of egg: - evaporation - Size of air sac - Temperature & humidity during storage frozen evaporate penetration of microorganism ventilation porosity of egg shell (evaporation, contamination of m.o.)
2. Pengenceran - Putih telur tebal turun : serat gliko protein ovomucin pecah - Ukuran yolk bertambah : perpindahan air, krn tekanan osmose 3. Kehilangan CO2 4. Turunnya Berat jenis telur : air cell bertambah 5. Kenaikan PH - Baru : 7,6 – 8,2 - Lama : naik, krn kehilangan CO2 (= peningkatan konsentrasi ion Hidrogen) - CO2 cenderung membentuk keseimbangan antara konsentrasi dalam telur dengan udara sekitarnya) 6. Dekomposisi bakterial : Naik, bila lembab dan temperatur tinggi Pseudomonas : bau busuk, pigmen yg menyebar melalui albumen
HATCHERY EQUIPMENT: Incubator Setter = Incubator that useful for 17 days incubation Hatcher = Incubator that useful for days incubation Regulator : Adjustable temperature
Hatchery term: Fertile Egg: egg belong to matting hen & by 21 days incubation process, it be hatch to d.o.c Fertile Egg: blastula egg, it means when ova position the egg in blastoderm stage. Fertile Egg: egg belong to matting hen with cockerel around 30 hours before (fertility Max : 2-6 days after matting), spermatozoa be able to life in oviduct up to days days after matting, the eggs still fertile Infertile Egg: consumption egg, egg belong to unmating hen.
Hatchery term: Fertility Hatchability Mortality during hatchery process Candling : observation of egg on 6-7 days and days to observe the embryo condition Egg Index: length/wide X 100%
HATCHERING:- Natural - Artificial Hatchering Process : 1. Settering 2. Hatchering Successfull hatchering proccess depend on: - Temperature - Humidity - Sanitation - Ventilation - Controlling
Hatchery Process 1.Collecting eggs - selection of eggs - Fumigation : to protect invasion of m.o. - Fumigation material : Formalin 40 %, Potassium Permanganat ( per 100 cubic : 35 cc formalin & 17,5 gr KMnO4)
2. Holding Room - Cool room for temporary storage (3 days) - Temperature 18°C, humidity 80% - If too longer storage: temperature 15° C, to inhibit metabolism process in egg - Reducing hatchability 1% /day (3 -10 day), after 10 days, hatchability reduce up to 3%/day. - Turning to 45°/twice daily
3. Pre heat Adaptation Room: to prevent embryo from shock condition Approximately 6 hrs in room temperature
4. Setter: - Duration length : 18 days - Temperature 97° – 99° F - Take parallel places with 45° angle - humidity: 86 % - low humidity (82-85%) : crawl feather - high humidity(87-88%) : difficulty to hatch, because of linkage mucous - Turning egg : automatically, every 1 hrs, to keep embryo develop completely. - Provide air fan with rating: rpm (to distribute the warm air
5. Transfer Moving from setter stage to hatchery incubator Candling of egg with TL 40 Watt lamp Infertile egg (clear chick), take out from incubator When transfer of fertile eggs, hatchery room must be fumigated with KMnO4 (triple doses)
6. Hatchering 3 days (days 19th-21th hari) Fumigation every day with double doses Increasing humidity of hatchery room by 0,2° F Coloring (Blower) : by formalin 200cc and add some water 400° cc brawniest on d.o. and it keep up to 5- 7 days
7. Pool Chick DOC (Day Old Chick) do to: - sexing - De beaking - Marek Vaccination (layer) sub cutanaeus around cervical area - Selection : take out abnormally form of beak, blindness, smooth & smaller wing, crawl feather, botak, un symmetric legs, dried leg, omphalitis, wet feather) - The good quality of d.o.c. were placed in cartoon then ready for market.
Importance Factors during Hatchery Temperature : high death embryo Humidity : - Low : dehydration too dried death embryo/ light weight of d.o.c - High : to prevent linkage water, reduce hatchability Ventilation: - Embryo need O2 & produce CO2 - Embryo sensitive to CO2 excess
Wider of Air Sacc/Air cell on candling days 7th, 14 th & 18th
Candling of Eggs
Dimulai sejak fertilisasi sel mengalami pembelahan terus berlangsung bila suhu >82 F Blastoderm menyebar pada permukaan yolk Sel I menyusun lap ektoderm Mengalami invagination dengan arah ke bawah membentuk lap entoderm Antara ekso derm dan entoderm terdapat mesoderm
Development of Chicken Embryo during Hatchery Process Ectoderm skin, beak, feather, nail, nervous system, mouth line, vent Mesoderm muscles, skeletal, blood, excretory organ & Reproduction Entoderm respiratory tract, secretary organ & digestive tract.
Day 1st After 3 hrs primitive streak faster development avoid new organ Hours 16th-24th : defferentiation of head and to create foregut Composing a few blood streams Composing neural fold (in head) neural grove caecum
Days 2nd Anterior brain Hours 44th : formality of hearth and activated it Blood system: 1. For embryo body 2. For vitelline, pass from the hearth to: - embryonic secretory cell - yolk Sacc : yolk folder, source of nutrient - Amnion (days 2nd&3rd) containing amnion liquor, surrounding embryo covered - Allantoin - Serosa : terbentuk pada waktu yg sama gn amnion skt ekstra embrionic membran & menempel membran sel akhirnya berfusi dengan allantois.
Day 4 Complete organ of embryo performed & to develop Embryo form be appearance & it different with mammalian Allantoids be developed surrounding egg content and to be performed as chorionic Allenton capillary connected with cell membrane & the Allenton for breathing function and as an embryo excretory. Allenton circulation : as a vehicle of nutrient from albumen & Ca for embryo skin all bone embryo Development of leg and wing, a part of body, tail starting appearance, brain has covered, development of spinals nerve up to the spinal root, optical lens & hole of ear apparently.
Day 6-18 Day 6 : Wing & leg appearance Day 8 &9 : feather seed has performed Day 13 : embryo color performed Day 16: the beak, toes performed Feed supplay from albumen finished then be continued from egg yolk
Day 19 Egg yolk enter to the body The beak attached to the air sac Functioning of lungs Embryo position: the head under the right wing facing to the air sac The legs position fold to the head position (the head in between of two legs) Mandible going to bones for making piping. Neck muscle growth faster & strengthen for energy supporting. Allenton was not function any more cell function. Dried, any blood stream attached to the egg cell.
Day 20 – hatchery process Day 20 : piping of egg shell Day 21 : hact.
Development of Chicken Embryo during Hatchery Process