3Egg Yolk (31%):Latebra : The junction between discus germinal disk with egg yolkGerminal Disk: Blastoderm stage of ovum cellConcentric Ring of egg yolkVetelinne membrane : transparent membrane around egg yolk
4Albumen (58%):Chalazae (3% of albumen): smooth thin layer that conjunction with egg yolk and chalazae,Inner thin layer (21% of albumen)Solid and thick of white egg (55%)Outer thin layer, conjunction with egg membrane shell
5Egg Shell Mebrane : Fibrous & harsh Compose of protein that similar as well as hair or featherConsisted of :- Inner shell membrane- Outer shell membraneInner shell is thin down thanouter shell
6Egg shell (11%):1.Hard, to coverage the content of egg and to protect the embryo from physical & chemicals defect2.Containing cuticle:- thickness : 10 – 30 micro meter- inhibit of microorganism penetrationfrom the pore- to protect infiltration of other agentfrom outer egg shell.
7Egg shell (11%):3. The pores content be variant : around /egg, these function include:- respiratory: the embryo may breatheduring incubation process- evaporate process- infiltration of outer liquor- the tickness depend on genetic factor,environment, temperature and diseases.4. Pigment shell found in spongy layer5. It consisted of: 94% Potassium Carbonate, 1% Magnesium Carbonate, 1% Calcium Phosphate, other organic component 4%
11Composition of Egg yolk Protein of egg yolk :- ovovetelin : 2,4 gr (75%) as phosphoprotein / protein containing P- ovolivetin : 0,7 gr (25%), sulfur content is highEgg yolk : Glyceride- Lecithin- Cholesterol* Pigment of egg yolk : Xantophyle
12Composition of albumen Protein :- Ovo albumen: 75%- Ovoconalbumen : 3%- Ovoglobulin: 2%- Ovo mucoid- OvomucinVitamin : riboflavin/ slightly green
13Composition of Eggshell Consisted of: Shell dan shell membraneOuter layer: cuticleProtein : collagen/ similarly with bone protein and cartilageCa CO3 : 94%Mg CO3 : 1%Ca PO4 : 1%Organic matter : 4 %shell Membrane :- 4-5 % of the weight of egg shell- containing: protein, water & mineral- Protein : ovocreatine, with sulfur content about 1,5 – 3 kali higher than sulfur content in albumen
14Composition of Water Fowl Egg Duck, Goose, Manila Duck (Entok)Moisture content slightly lowerFat content is higherDucks need slightly higher temperature for embryo development
15Handling of Egg Select the consumption egg and fertile egg - temperature > 26,7°C.The develop embryo blood spot vascular system as bee nest form (Hacch spot) its not consumable.- If the temperature is not stable, the embryo will be death because of contamination* Dirty egg: wash with warm water 43-51,7°C, dried as soon as possible, water should free from Fe (max :3 ppm)
16Damage Egg 1. Reduce of weight of egg: - evaporation - Size of air sac - Temperature & humidity during storagefrozen evaporatepenetration of microorganismventilationporosity of egg shell (evaporation,contamination of m.o.)
172. Pengenceran- Putih telur tebal turun : serat gliko protein ovomucinpecah- Ukuran yolk bertambah : perpindahan air, krn tekananosmose3. Kehilangan CO24. Turunnya Berat jenis telur : air cell bertambah5. Kenaikan PH- Baru : 7,6 – 8,2- Lama : naik, krn kehilangan CO2 (=peningkatan konsentrasi ion Hidrogen)- CO2 cenderung membentuk keseimbangan antara konsentrasi dalam telur dengan udara sekitarnya)6. Dekomposisi bakterial : Naik , bila lembab dan temperatur tinggiPseudomonas : bau busuk, pigmen yg menyebar melalui albumen
18HATCHERY EQUIPMENT: Incubator Setter = Incubator that useful for 17 days incubationHatcher = Incubator that useful for 17-21days incubationRegulator : Adjustable temperature
19Hatchery term:Fertile Egg: egg belong to matting hen & by 21 days incubation process, it be hatch to d.o.cFertile Egg: blastula egg, it means when ova position the egg in blastoderm stage.Fertile Egg: egg belong to matting hen with cockerel around 30 hours before (fertility Max : 2-6 days after matting), spermatozoa be able to life in oviduct up to days 6-10 days after matting, the eggs still fertileInfertile Egg: consumption egg, egg belong to unmating hen.
20Hatchery term: Fertility Hatchability Mortality during hatchery processCandling : observation of egg on 6-7 days and days to observe the embryo conditionEgg Index: length/wide X 100%
22Hatchery Process Collecting eggs - selection of eggs - Fumigation : to protect invasion ofm.o.- Fumigation material : Formalin 40 %, Potassium Permanganat ( per 100 cubic : 35 cc formalin & 17,5 gr KMnO4)
23- Cool room for temporary storage (3 days) 2. Holding Room- Cool room for temporary storage (3 days)- Temperature 18°C, humidity 80%- If too longer storage: temperature 15° C,to inhibit metabolism process in egg- Reducing hatchability 1% /day (3 -10day), after 10 days, hatchability reduce upto 3%/day.- Turning to 45°/twice daily
24Adaptation Room: to prevent embryo from shock condition 3. Pre heatAdaptation Room: to prevent embryo from shock conditionApproximately 6 hrs in room temperature
254. Setter: - Duration length : 18 days - Temperature 97° – 99° F - Take parallel places with 45° angle- humidity: 86 %- low humidity (82-85%) : crawl feather- high humidity(87-88%) : difficulty to hatch,because of linkage mucous- Turning egg : automatically, every 1 hrs, to keepembryo develop completely.- Provide air fan with rating: rpm (to distribute the warm air
26Moving from setter stage to hatchery incubator 5. TransferMoving from setter stage to hatchery incubatorCandling of egg with TL 40 Watt lampInfertile egg (clear chick), take out from incubatorWhen transfer of fertile eggs, hatchery room must be fumigated with KMnO4 (triple doses)
27Fumigation every day with double doses 6. Hatchering3 days (days 19th-21th hari)Fumigation every day with double dosesIncreasing humidity of hatchery room by 0,2° FColoring (Blower) : by formalin 200cc and add some water 400° cc brawniest on d.o. and it keep up to 5-7 days
287. Pool Chick DOC (Day Old Chick) do to: - sexing - De beaking - Marek Vaccination (layer) sub cutanaeusaround cervical area- Selection : take out abnormally form of beak, blindness, smooth & smaller wing, crawl feather, botak, un symmetric legs, dried leg, omphalitis, wet feather)- The good quality of d.o.c. were placed in cartoon then ready for market.
29Importance Factors during Hatchery Temperature : high death embryoHumidity :- Low : dehydration too dried death embryo/ light weight of d.o.c- High : to prevent linkage water, reducehatchabilityVentilation:- Embryo need O2 & produce CO2- Embryo sensitive to CO2 excess
30Wider of Air Sacc/Air cell on candling days 7th, 14th & 18th
32Dimulai sejak fertilisasi sel mengalami pembelahan terus berlangsung bila suhu >82 F Blastoderm menyebar pada permukaan yolkSel I menyusun lap ektodermMengalami invagination dengan arah ke bawah membentuk lap entodermAntara ekso derm dan entoderm terdapat mesoderm
33Development of Chicken Embryo during Hatchery Process Ectoderm skin, beak, feather, nail, nervous system, mouth line, ventMesoderm muscles, skeletal, blood, excretory organ & ReproductionEntoderm respiratory tract, secretary organ & digestive tract.
34Day 1stAfter 3 hrs primitive streak faster development avoid new organHours 16th-24th : defferentiation of head and to create foregutComposing a few blood streamsComposing neural fold (in head) neural grove caecum
35Days 2nd Anterior brain Hours 44th : formality of hearth and activated itBlood system:1. For embryo body2. For vitelline, pass from the hearth to:- embryonic secretory cell- yolk Sacc : yolk folder, source of nutrient- Amnion (days 2nd&3rd) containing amnion liquor, surrounding embryo covered- Allantoin- Serosa : terbentuk pada waktu yg sama gn amnionskt ekstra embrionic membran & menempel membran sel akhirnya berfusi dengan allantois.
36Day 4 Complete organ of embryo performed & to develop Embryo form be appearance & it different with mammalianAllantoids be developed surrounding egg content and to be performed as chorionicAllenton capillary connected with cell membrane & the Allenton for breathing function and as an embryo excretory.Allenton circulation : as a vehicle of nutrient from albumen & Ca for embryo skin all bone embryoDevelopment of leg and wing, a part of body, tail starting appearance, brain has covered, development of spinals nerve up to the spinal root, optical lens & hole of ear apparently.
37Day 6-18 Day 6 : Wing & leg appearance Day 8 &9 : feather seed has performedDay 13 : embryo color performedDay 16: the beak, toes performedFeed supplay from albumen finished then be continued from egg yolk
38Day 19 Egg yolk enter to the body The beak attached to the air sac Functioning of lungsEmbryo position: the head under the right wing facing to the air sacThe legs position fold to the head position (the head in between of two legs)Mandible going to bones for making piping.Neck muscle growth faster & strengthen for energy supporting.Allenton was not function any more cell function. Dried, any blood stream attached to the egg cell.