had given Larisa said that the new teacher had given all the students an A last semester. could eat Really! Viktor told me that students could eat in his class. No, what is it? Rumors and Gossip Have you heard the latest gossip about the new teacher? was Wow! Yeah, I heard he was an easy teacher. didn’t give Maria said that the new teacher didn’t give any homework.
Indirect Speech 1 When the reporting verb is in the simple past, the verb tense in the indirect speech statement often changes. Direct SpeechIndirect Speech Simple Present Present Progressive Simple Past Tense Present Perfect Simple Past Past Progressive Past Perfect
Examples 1 is “The teacher is strict.” was She said the teacher was strict. is giving “The teacher is giving everyone an A.” was giving He said the teacher was giving everyon e an A.
Examples 2 put “Somebody put the final exam on the Internet.” had put She said somebody had put the final exam on the Internet. has graded “The teacher has graded our grammar tests.” had graded Joe said the teacher had graded our grammar tests.
Practice 1 is 1. “The library is closed.” He said… have registered 2. “We have registered for classes.” They said… got 3. “She got an A on the test.” You said… Change the direct speech into indirect speech. is helpingShe said… “My friend is helping me study.” She said… Example: was helping She said her friend was helping her study. was closed He said the library was closed. had registered They said they had registered for classes. had gotten You said she had gotten an A on the test.
Indirect Speech 2 Modals often change in indirect speech. Direct SpeechIndirect Speech will can may must would could might had to
Examples 1 will be “The test will be difficult.” would be He said the test would be difficult. could use She said we could use our notes on the test. can use “You can use your notes on the test.”
Examples 2 had to study She said we had to study hard for the final exam. must study “You must study hard for the final exam.” may have “We may have a substitute teacher.” might have She said we might have a substitute teacher.
Practice 2 ’ll help 1. “We’ll help you with your homework.” They said… must finish 2. “Anna must finish her paper.” He said… may take 3. “She may take a different class.” You said… Change the direct speech into indirect speech. can relax “You can relax about the exam.” She said… Example: could relax She said I could relax about the exam. would help They said they would help me with my homework. had to finish He said Anna had to finish her paper. might take You said she might take a different class.
Indirect Speech 3 The following modals do not change in indirect speech: should, could, might, and ought to. shouldn’t tell “You shouldn’t tell this secret to anyone.” shouldn’t tell She said I shouldn’t tell this secret to anyone. ought to tell “You ought to tell this to a friend.” !! ought to tell He said I ought to tell this to a friend.
could have gotten “I could have gotten help from a tutor.” could have gotten He said he could have gotten help from a tutor. had studied, would have gotten He said if he had studied, he would have gotten an A. had chosen “I thought I had chosen the easy teacher.” had studied,would have gotten “If I had studied, I would have gotten an A.” had chosen He said he thought he had chosen the easy teacher. Indirect Speech 4 The following do not change in indirect speech: the past perfect, the present and past unreal conditional, and past modals.
Practice 3 knew,would tell 1. “If I knew, I would tell you.” She said… might have known 2. “I might have known the test was difficult.” He said… had had 3. “She had had that teacher before.” We said… Change the direct speech into indirect speech. ought to study “We ought to study some more.” He said… Example: ought to study He said we ought to study some more. knew,would tell She said if she knew, she would tell me. might have known He said he might have known the test was difficult. had had We said she had had that teacher before.