Presentation on theme: "PGP VOICE Mainly transitive verbs, that is, verbs with an object, have a passive voice. PINKU John cried. John sold the house. FORMING THE PASSIVE."— Presentation transcript:
PGP VOICE Mainly transitive verbs, that is, verbs with an object, have a passive voice. PINKU John cried. John sold the house. FORMING THE PASSIVE subject verb Active: (a) John sold Cry is an intransitive verb. It has no passive. Help is a transitive verb. It has a passive. object To transform an active sentence into a passive the house. sentence: 1. the object becomes the subject subjectverb by+object/agent Passive: (b) The housewas soldby John. 2. be is put into the same tense as the main verb 3. the main verb becomes a past participle 4. the subject becomes the agent, preceded by by Note The agent is normally preceded by by. But when the agent is a substance or raw material, use with. The novel was written by Defoe. but The floor was covered with oil. The pool was filled with mud. It is often not necessary to specify the agent. The burglar was sentenced to one year in prison. FORM OF THE PASSIVE: BE + PAST PARTICIPLE Here is a chart of active-passive equivalents: TenseActive voicePassive voice simple presentsellsis sold present continuousis sellingis being sold simple pastsoldwas sold past continuouswas sellingwas being sold Note simple futureshall/will sellshall/will be sold In spoken English, future continuousshall/will be sellingshall/will be being sold get (instead of be) is present perfecthas soldhas been sold often used to form past perfecthad soldhad been sold the passive. future perfectshall/will have soldshall/will have been sold The house got conditionalwould sellwould be sold sold. = The perfect conditionalwould have soldwould have been sold house was sold. present infinitiveto sellto be sold That letter must perfect infinitiveto have soldto have been sold get written. = -ing formsellingbeing sold That letter must perfect participlehaving soldhaving been sold be written. Examples of sentences: You’ll get hurt. ActivePassive= You’ll be hurt. He keeps the door open. He is selling the car. He closed the window. He was opening the gate. He will carry the bag. He will be doing the work. He has shut the book. He had written the letter. He will have finished the work. He would buy the pen. He would have repaired the box. He is thought to have arrested her. Locking the safe, … Having rescued the boy, … = The door is kept open by him. = The car is being sold by him. = The window was closed by him. = The gate was being opened by him. = The bag will be carried by him. = The work will be being done by him. = The book has been shut by him. = The letter had been written by him. = The work will have been finished by him. = The pen would be bought by him. = The box would have been repaired by him. = She is thought to have been arrested by him. = The safe being locked, … = The boy having been rescued, … PGP VOICE
THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS AND PHRASAL MODALS (a) BASIC MODALS: can, could, had better, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would (b) PHRASAL MODALS: be to, be going to, be supposed to, have to, have got to, used to THE PASSIVE FORM: modal + be + past participle Here is a chart of active- passive equivalents: Active voice can sell could sell had better sell may sell might sell must sell ought to sell shall sell should sell will sell would sell is to sell is going to sell is supposed to sell have to sell have got to sell used to sell Examples of sentences: Active Passive voice can be sold could be sold had better be sold may be sold might be sold must be sold ought to be sold shall be sold should be sold will be sold would be sold *is to be sold *is going to be sold *is supposed to be sold *have to be sold *have got to be sold used to be sold Passive * Be careful Basic modals and Phrasal modal ‘used to’ do not change from active to passive. Active: John might sell the house. Passive: The house might be sold by John. But Phrasal modals beginning with ‘be’ or ‘have’ may change to agree with its subject. Active: John has to sell the apples. Passive: The apples have to be sold by John. Active: John is going to sell the apples. Passive: The apples are going to be sold by John. I can solve the problem. They could hire a boat. You had better return the clock. Tom may write the book. You might take the path. They must obey the rule. We ought to help the poor. We shall make a plan. We should meet the captain. They will invite Paul to the picnic. = The problem can be solved by me. = A boat could be hired by them. = The clock had better be returned by you. = The book may be written by Tom. = The path might be taken by you. = The rule must be obeyed by them. = The poor ought to be helped by us. = A plan will be made by us. = The captain should be met by us. = Paul will be invited to the picnic by them. PGP VOICE They would allow me to enter the room. Bangladesh is to face many natural calamities. We are going to arrange a party. He is supposed to finish the work. We had to open an account. He has got to pay the price. The man used to tell good stories. = I would be allowed by them to enter the room. = Many natural calamities are to be face by Bangladesh. = A party is going to be arranged by us. = The work is supposed to be finished by him. = An account had to be opened by us. = The price has got to be paid by him = Good stories used to be told by him. THE PAST-PASSIVE FORM: modal + have been + past participle Here is a chart of active- passive equivalents: Active voicePassive voice could have sold could have been sold might have sold might have been sold must have sold must have been sold ought to have sold ought to have been sold should have soldshould have been sold would have sold would have been sold Examples of sentences: ActivePassive I could have written a letter.= A letter could have been written by me. He might have sent a letter last week.= A letter might have been sent by him last week. He must have followed the rule.= The rule must have been followed by him. We ought to have supported him.= He ought to have been supported by us. We should have seen a doctor.= A doctor should have been seen by us. He would have arranged a party.= A party would have been arranged by him.
ACTIVE: subject + like/love/wish/want + object + active Infinitive phrase with ‘to’ PASSIVE: subject + like/love/wish/want + object of active infinitive phrase with ‘to’ + passive infinitive phrase with ‘to’ + by + object of like/love/wish/want ActivePassive He wanted them to delay the train. = He wanted the train to be delayed by them. She liked us to water the flowers at dawn. = She liked the flowers to be watered by us at dawn. Remember! Other verbs + object + infinitive combinations form the passive normally Active Passive They told us to go. = We were told to go by them. We’ll invite him to eat. = He’ll be invited to eat by us. He is asking Susana to dance. = Susana is being asked to dance by him. Infinitives in passive sentences are usually infinitives with to! They saw Emmy jump. = Emmy was seen to jump by them. He made Mamun rest. = Mamun was made to rest by him. We heard her sing a song. = She was heard to sing a song by us. But He let me enter the room. = I was let enter the room by him. ## Forming the passive with consider & find : Active Passive People consider him (to be) wise. = He is considered (to be) wise by people. People found her (to be) dead. = He was found (to be) dead by people. Note After need, use a gerund or passive infinitive. The meaning is identical. Both sentences are passive. The phone needs repairing. = The phone needs to be repaired. PGP ACTIVE : subject + agree/decide/arrange/demand/propose + active infinitive phrase with ‘to’ PASSIVE : subject + agree/decide/arrange/demand/propose + that + subject (object of active infinitive phrase becomes subject) + should + passive infinitive without ‘to’ / passive infinitive phrase without ‘to’ OR, It+ be + past participle + active infinitive phrase with ‘to’ Active We agreed to take Rimo. They decided to reduce the price. Passive = (1) We agreed that Rimo should be taken (2) It was agreed to take Rimo. = (1) They decided that the price should be reduced. (2) It was decided to reduce the price. Active: subject + advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest + -ing form (gerund)+ object Passive: subject + advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest + that + subject (object after -ing form becomes subject) + should + be + past participle form of -ing form ActivePassive She advised finishing the job. = She advised that the job should be finished. They suggested driving the car. = They suggested that the car should be driven. Active: subject + assume/believe/claim/estimate/find/know/presume/report/say/suppose/think/understand + that-clause Passive: It + be + past participle form of assume / believe / claim / estimate / find / know / presume / report / say / suppose / think / understand + that-clause OR, subject of that-clause + be + past participle form of assume / believe / claim / estimate / find / know / presume / report / say / suppose / think / understand + turning the predicate of that-clause into to-infinitive phrase Active They say that he is a genius. People believe that the story is true. One assumes that they are innocent. Passive = 1) It is said that he is a genius. 2) He is said to be a genius. = 1) It is believed that the story is true. 2) The story is believed to be true. = 1) It is assumed that they are innocent. 2) They are assumed to be innocent.
Prepositions are put after the passive verb a. phrasal verb (verb + preposition) ActivePassive They looked for Shafi everywhere. = Shafi was looked for everywhere by them. We will take care of the garden lovingly. = The garden will be taken care of lovingly by us. b. verb + preposition + object ActivePassive He had to write to his parents daily. = His parents had to be written to by him daily. Her family never thought of her. = She was never thought of by her family. Active Participle is placed after the passive verb: ActivePassive We saw the man crossing the road. = The man was seen crossing the road by us. We found the tree lying on the road. = The tree was found lying on the road by us. Sentences with double objects [indirect (animate) and direct (inanimate) object] have two possible passive forms. ActivePassive He told her a lie. = 1) She was told a lie by him. 2) A lie was told (to) her by him. They sent him a letter. = 1) He was sent a letter by them. 2) A letter was sent (to) him by them. We can transform sentences beginning with there and having to-infinitive from active to passive by using a passive to-infinitive in place of an active to-infinitive. ActivePassive There are a lot of windows to paint. = There are a lot of windows to be painted. There was some homework to do. = There was some homework to be done. But we do not normally use the passive to-infinitive for leisure activities. Example: There are lots of exciting things to do. In a complex sentence we should change the voices of both the Principal and Subordinate clauses. The introductory It may be used in this regard. ActivePassive I know that he did the work. = 1) It is known to me that the work was done by him. 2) That the work was done by him is known to me We must endure what we cannot cure. = What cannot be cured must be endured. An intransitive verb may be changed into the passive a. when it takes a cognate object in the active voice: ActivePassive They fought a battle at this place. = A battle was fought at this place by them. They ran a race. = A race was run. I dreamt a bad dream last night. = A bad dream was dreamt by me last night. b. when it is a prepositional or group verb: ActivePassive They laughed at us. = We were laughed at by them. He dispensed with my services. = My services were dispensed with by him. Neither reflexive object nor factitive object can become the subject. In the passive, reflexive object becomes the agent and factitive object is placed after past participle. ActivePassive He killed himself. = He was killed by himself. They made him king. = He was made king by them.
If the active voice is in the imperative mood, we usually use Let + object + passive infinitive without to for affirmative sentence and Let + not/never + object + passive infinitive without to for negative sentence. Active Do it. Tell him to go. Pluck me a flower. Do not do it. Never tell a lie. Let me do the work. Passive = Let it be done. = Let him be told to go. = Let a flower be plucked for me. = Let not it be done. = Let never a lie be told. = Let the work be done by me. ## There are other ways also to change an active imperative sentence into a passive one: Active Tell him to go. Keep your word. Put up a tent. Enter by this room. PGPPGP Passive = He should be told to go. = Your word should be kept. = Have a tent put up. = You are requested to enter by this room. Note Imperative sentences beginning with please are changed from active to passive in the following way: Active: Please keep off the grass. Passive: You (or visitors) are requested to keep off the grass. PGPG P Changing the voices of quasi-passive verbs (the Middle Voice): ActivePassive This book reads well. = (1) This book sounds to /affects a reader well when it is read. (2) This book is read well. Honey tastes sweet. = (1) Honey is sweet when it is tasted. (2) Honey is tasted sweet. Roses smell sweet. = (1) Roses are sweet when they are smelt. (2) Roses are smelt sweet. The cows are milking. = The cows are being milked. This book is printing. = This book is being printed. PASSIVE FORMS OF QUESTIONS/INTERROGATIVE SENTNECES: In the passive form of an interrogative sentence the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject: Active Have you given him the book? Does the bird eat mangoes? Who wrote the book? What do you want? Passive = Has he been given the book by you? = Has the book been given him by you? = Are mangoes eaten by the bird? = By whom was the book written? (Who becomes By whom.) = What is wanted by you? (In the active voice what works the object and in the passive voice what works as the subject.) Why do you like Dhaka? = Why is Dhaka liked by you?
If the subject of an active voice is people, they, someone, one, somebody or nobody, it is not mentioned in the passive voice. ActivePassive Someone should give me a sheet of paper. = I should be given a sheet of paper. Somebody cooked the food. = The food was cooked. People speak English all over the world. = English is spoken all over the world. Transforming passive sentences into active ones: If by + agent is not mentioned in a passive sentence, the subject of the active voice is decided according to the need of the sentence. Passive Football is played all over the world. My pen has been stolen. I was obliged to go. Nothing can be gained without labour. Why was he refused admittance? Indiscipline should not be encouraged. A promise should be kept. The food will be served soon. Arabic is spoken in Egypt. The tree has been uprooted. My book has been lost. The door should be kept closed. My suggestion was not accepted. A meeting was held and speeches delivered. Silence must be maintained in the library. This club was established in 1957. It is said that he is the best boy in the class. You are expected to be faithful. The statement has been tempered with. Trespassers will be prosecuted. Evening dress must be worn. Active = People play football all over the world. = Someone has stolen my pen. = Circumstances obliged me to go. = We can gain nothing without labour. = Why did they refuse him admittance? = We should not encourage indiscipline. = One should keep one’s promise. = Someone will serve the food soon. = People in Egypt speak Arabic. = A strong wind has uprooted the tree. = I have lost my book. = You should keep the door closed. = They did not accept my suggestion. = They held a meeting and delivered speeches. = Readers must maintain silence in the library. = They established this club in 1957. = They (or people) say that he is the best boy in the class. = We expect you to be faithful. = Someone has tempered with the statement. = The authorities will prosecute the trespassers. = Guests must wear evening dress. Why wasn’t the matter brought to my notice? = Why didn’t you bring the matter to my notice? It is said that morning shows the day. = Everybody says that morning shows the day. PGP Stative Passive (an existing situation or state, and no action) Many stative passives are followed by prepositions other than by. Common Stative Passive verbs + Prepositions be accustomed to be acquainted with be addicted to be amazed at, by be annoyed with (sb), at / by / about (sth) be associated with be astonished at, by be astounded at, by be bored with (sb), by (sth) be cluttered with be committed to be composed of be concerned about be connected to be coordinated with be covered with, in (a layer of liquid, dust etc) be crowded with be dedicated to be devoted to be disappointed in / with (sb/sth), at/about (sth) be discriminated against be divorced from be done with be dressed in be engaged to be enveloped in be equipped with be excited about be exhausted from be exposed to be filled with be finished with be frightened of, by be gone from be interested in be involved in be known to, for be limited to be located in be made of be married to be opposed to be pleased with be prepared for be protected from be provided with be qualified for be related to be remembered for be satisfied with be scared of, by be surprised at, by be terrified of, by be tired of, from be vexed with (sb) / at (sth) be worried about PGP
PGP EXERCISE 1. Transform the active sentences into the passive ones. (a) Good cooks use the best ingredients. (b) People usually fear snakes. (c) Mehmood will fly the plane to Jamaica. (d) They proved the theory to be wrong. (e) Runa Laila sang all the old hits. (f) Saifur Rahman is preparing the financial report. (g) Nobody has washed my shirts! (h) Our students enjoyed the Shakespeare’s play. (i) The government will propose new taxes this week. (j) People don’t consider him dependable. (k) We saw the lame man walking along the road. (l) I found the dog lying on the street. 2. Transform the sentences from active to passive. (a) You should forgive him. (b) You mustn’t interrupt me! (c) They should turn up the volume. (d) The gardener ought to mow the lawn every week. (e) We have to finish the work today. (f)They cannot stop the show now. (g) Someone should have fixed the doorbell by now. (h) No one will transmit the message. 3. Fill in the blanks with by or with. (a) The cellar was flooded __________ water. (b) The cellar was flooded __________ a rainstorm. (c) The House was built __________ Mr. Haque. (d) The spaghetti is covered __________ grated cheese. (e) The Mona Lisa was painted _____________ Leonardo da Vinci. 4. Transform the sentences into the passive. (a) Our teacher wanted us to prepare the next lesson. (b) Mr. Kalimullah didn’t like people to trample his flowers. (c) A person told us to come in. (d) Nobody invited him to sit down. (e) Habib would love someone to cook dinner for him. (f)They heard the infant cry frequently. (g) The nurse ordered Mrs. Diana to take the pills. (h) You will see Rahul jump with a parachute. (i) They told me to leave. (j) People saw the train derail. 5. Give both alternative passive forms to the sentences below. (a) The board of directors agreed to hire a sales manager. (b) They advised taking the exam at a later date. (c) Did you suggest climbing the mountain from the other side? (d) John has decided to meet all the requirements. (e) Why didn’t they suggest giving the reward to someone else? (f)Dr. Jalal agreed to examine all the medical charts. (g) We arranged to start construction in June. (h) I will recommend hiring Milton for the job. 6. Give both alternative passive forms to the sentences below. (a) We understand that the problem has been solved. (b) They believe that we are out of town. (c) Everybody estimates that the painting is worth a million dollars. (d) People say that Miss Fatema is about to resign. (e) Newsmen reported that the Princess was ill. (f)They claimed that our research was useless. (g) He presumed that the man was Dr Watson. (h) People suppose that the film is a box-office success. (i) Everyone knows that Raj has a soft spot for Simran. (j) We all thought that Raju was a model husband. PGP EXERCISE ON VOICE CHANGE PGP EXERCISE ON VOICE CHANGE
7.Transform the sentences into the passive. Remember to put the preposition in its proper place. (a) They turned the beeper after the signal. (b) After mother died, Grandma looked after us. (c) They have thrown away the document by mistake. (d) Nobody has slept on my bed. (e) People always stare at the girl. (f)The authorities will tow away your car if you leave it here. (g) You must turn off all the lights by midnight. (h) People should not step on the wet cement. (i) Absolutely everyone looks up to him. (j) Someone has to look at Karim’s homework before bedtime. 8.The sentences below have two objects and two alternative passive forms. Give both of them. (a) They sent him two warnings. (b) The biology teacher regularly gives Tony extra lab work. (c) The salesman will show you the latest model. (d) I will give you two options. (e) They pay us the rent once (f)We will send each of the students an application form. 9. Transform the passive sentences below into the active voice. (a) The lecture was given by the famous historian. (b) The biography will be written by Michael Stone. (c) The crime is believed to have been solved by the police. (d) The fax is being sent now. (e) When it started to rain, the roof was being fixed. (f)The Haitian refugees were rejected by the border guards. (g) AIDS is cause by a virus. (h) A sharp rise in drug is caused by a drop in price. PGP EXERCISE (i) That new film was not directed by Spielberg. (j) Thatcher’s telephone number must not be given out. 10. Transform the sentences below into the opposite voice. (a) Maria was given the first prize. (b) Mum always urged us to eat a big breakfast before school. (c) One really ought to hear Rubel play the violin. (d) The employees have organised a retirement party for Mr. James. (e) People usually assumed that he is well organised. (f)Smoking is no longer permitted on domestic flight. (g) Many parking fines have been sent me in my lifetime. ON VOICE CHANGE (h) You must step on the accelerator if you wish to keep the appointment. (i) We are not going to cover up the scandal. (j) They men were cowed into total submission. 11. Transform the sentences below into the opposite voice. (a) Julhas has not been compensated for his work yet. The editors are said to be dissatisfied with him. (b) A volcanic eruption buried Pompeii. The violence of the explosion must have affected nearby towns. (c) They will never call that babysitter again. She did not take care of little Raj as requested. (d) A private detective is being called in by the management. The suspected accountant is thought to have stolen a considerable sum of money. (e) The doctors suggested that the sick man should be sent to a sanatorium. Permission to do so was granted them by his family. (f)We’re sorry, but we couldn’t repair your car. You will have to scrap it. Perhaps you should give some thought to buying a new one. (g) They tell us that someone broke into your house during your absence. Apparently the thief stole many valuables. (h) The famous explorer is reported to be lost in the Amazon rainforest. It is assumed that he cannot survive alone for long. Unless he is found soon, he will have to be given up for dead. (i) The collapse of the Berlin Wall changed the political geography of Europe. It united the two Germanys and broke up The Soviet Union. Many people do not accept or understand the new situation.
12. Transform the sentences below into the opposite voice. (a) Why didn’t they help him? (b) When will you make it? (c) Who saw the man there? (d) Does he want this? (e) Where did you see him? (f)Did you write the letter? (g) Are they making the road? (h) Why did you not buy a new pen? (i) Did he plough the land? (j) Will you sell the car? (k) Who has done the sum? (l) Do you speak English? (m)How did you help the boy? (n) Were these letters written by him? (o) By whom was the glass broken? 13. Transform the sentences below into the opposite voice. (a) Punish the culprit. (b) Let her be taken to school. (c) Bring me a newspaper. (d) Give him some money. (e) Let me be given a cup of tea. (f)Please lend me your pen. (g) Kindly show the boy the way to the inn. (h) Let me drive the car. (i) Do not tell a lie. (j) Never cheat people. (k) Always speak the truth. (l) Let the thief be punished by me. 14. Transform the sentences below into the opposite voice. (a) The mangoes tasted sour. (b) Iron feels soft. (c) Cotton is soft when it is felt. (d) These oranges are tasted sweet. (e) The house in building. 15. Complete the sentences with appropriate prepositions. PGP EXERCISE ON VOICE CHANGE (a) Our school soccer team was very excited ________ going to the national finals. (b) I’m not acquainted _________ that man. Is he known _____ you? (c) Mark Twain is known __________ his stories about life on the Mississippi. (d) A person who is addicted _______ drugs needs professional medical help. (e) Jack is married ________ Joan. (f)Could I please have the dictionary when you are finished _____ it? (g) A: Aren’t you ready yet? We have to be at the station at 7:45. B: I’ll never make it. I’m still dressed _______ my pajamas. (h) My car is equipped ___________ air conditioning and a sunroof. (i) The school children were exposed _________ the measles by a student who had them. (j) Gandhi was committed ___________non-violence. He believed in it all of his life. (k) The large table was covered __________ every kind of food you could imagine. (l) Barbara turned off the TV because she was tired _______ listening to the news. (m)The choices in that restaurant are limited __________ pizza and sandwiches. (n) A: Are you in favour of a worldwide ban on nuclear weapons, or are you opposed _____ it? B: I’m in favour of it. I’m terrified _________ the possibility of a nuclear war starting by accident. However, my wife is against disarmament. (o) The department store was filled ____________ toys for the holiday sale. (p) John’s baldhead is protected _________ the hot sun when he is wearing his hat. (q) The store was crowded __________ last-minute shoppers on the eve of the holiday. (r)I think you’re involved _________ too many activities. You don’t have enough time to spend with your family. (s) Your leg bone is connected __________ your hip bone.
(t)Their apartment is always messy. It’s cluttered ________ newspapers, books, clothes, and dirty dishes. (u) Don’t leave those seedlings outside tonight. If they’re exposed _________ temperatures below freezing, they will die. (v) An interior decorator makes certain that the colour of the walls is coordinated _______ the colour of the carpets and window coverings. (w)We finished packing our sleeping bags, tent, first-aid kit, food, and warm clothes. We are finally prepared __________ our camping trip. (x) I was very disappointed _________that movie. The whole first hour was devoted _______ historical background, with a cast of thousands fighting endless battles. I was bored ______ it before the plot took shape. (y) A: Are you still associated __________ the International Red Cross and Red Crescent? B: I was, until this year. Are you interested ________working with them? A: I think I’d like to. They are dedicated ___________ helping people in time of crisis, and I admire the work they have done. Can you get me some information? 16. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses and an appropriate preposition. Use the simple present. (a) (interest)Carol ____________________ ancient history. (b) (compose)Water ____________________ hydrogen and oxygen. (c) (accustom) I ____________________ living here. (d) (terrify)Our son ____________________ dogs. (e) (finish)Pat ____________________ her composition. (f) (addict)Ann languishingly calls herself “chocoholic.” She says she ________ chocolate. (g) (cover)It’s winter, and the ground ____________________ snow. (h) (satisfy)I ____________________ the progress I have made. (i)(marry)Ratri ____________________ Swapan. (j)(divorce)Jasmine ____________________ Palash. (k) (acquaint)I _____________ not ______________ that author’s work. (l)(tire)I ____________________ sitting here. (m) (relate)Your name is Rakesh Chawla. _______ you _________________ Juhi Chawla? (n) (dedicate)Mrs. Robinson works in an orphanage. She ____________________ her work. (o) (disappoint) Jim got a bad grade because he didn’t study. He __________________ himself. (p) (scare) (q) (commit) (r) (devote) (s) (dress) (t) (do) 17. Change the voice. Bobby is not very brave. She ____________________her own shadow. The administration ________ improving the quality of education at our school’ Mr. and Mrs. Hamid ____________________ each other. Johnny ____________________ his best suit for his wedding today. We ____________________ this exercise. (a) They knew that their king would never rest till he understood the matter. (b) Never was he deceived. (c) He knew that his own life was unjust. (d) She taunted her husband with the memory of his early promise. (e) The Pole Star was given him for his home, and is called to this day the Dhruba Loka. (f)His father looked at him red-eyed. (g) I was admitted as a flatterer to a great man. (h) I was unable to extricate him except by becoming his bail. (i) His lordship soon found me to be very unfit for service. (j) Nobody has seen her smile. (k) I felt no sensations different from those I experienced abroad. (l) These even good manners might have obliged me to perform. (m)Some of them fancied that He would make beautiful furniture. (n) As no other miller could be found, Mr. Mouse was appointed to that office. (o) The man to whom this appeal was made swore a dreadful oath. (p) There is a lot of work to do. (q) There were many helpless people to give aid to. (r)Closing the door, I went to bed. (s)Having finished my work, I returned the tool to Mr. John. PGP VOICE