Presentation on theme: "November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958. G.E. Moore Distinguished English philosopher educated at Dulwich College in London and went on to study & teach at."— Presentation transcript:
November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958
G.E. Moore Distinguished English philosopher educated at Dulwich College in London and went on to study & teach at the University of Cambridge, England. Founder of Analytic philosophy along with Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Gottlob Frege. Well known author, some of his titles include the Principia Ethica, and his essays, "The Refutation of Idealism", "A Defence of Common Sense", and "A Proof of the External World". He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1918 to 1919. The object of the Society was the first, the systematic study of philosophy and as to its historical development; and 2nd, as to its methods and problems. Died on October 24, 1958 and was interred in the Burial Ground of Parish of the Ascension, Cambridge, England.
Analytical philosophy is a style of doing philosophy, not a particular set of views. In short, philosophers using the analytic style aim for the clearest ideas as possible using logical thought as the basis for their arguments or ideas. According to Moore, when presented with the question “What ought I to do?”, the analytic style can be used to help base the proper answer or decision on whether the action will be the cause of the good, or bring about good effect.
Moore repeatedly claims that ‘good’ is indefinable. That is, he means that the meaning of ‘good’ cannot be readily put into words if you are using ethics as a guideline. A theory that Moore proposed to discuss ‘good’ follows.. - Naturalistic Ethics (the Naturalistic Fallacy) Implies that when we think “this is good”, what we are thinking is that the thing in question bears a defined relation to some thing / object. Moore says that “I have thus appropriated the name Naturalism to a particular method of approaching Ethics – a method which, strictly understood, is inconsistent with the possibility of any Ethics whatsoever.” The Naturalistic method substitutes for “good” a natural property of an object or objects, thus replacing Ethics by use of one of the sciences.
Naturalistic ethics – “A theory of moral behavior according to which ethics is an empirical science. Ethical statements are reduced to the natural sciences (physical or social), and ethical questions are answered completely based on the findings of those sciences”. – i.e. any “ethical value” would be confirmable by means of science. Moore believed more in the support of the ‘is vs. ought’ statement. That is to say, “Science is concerned with ‘what is’” versus “Ethics is concerned with ‘what ought to be.’” Moralists Jeremy Bentham & Immanuel Kant both used the ‘is vs. ought’ argument to support their concepts & theories of morality & law as well.
"It's raining outside but I don't believe that it is." 1. It can be true at a particular time both that p, and that I do not believe that p. (p being the value stated) 2. I can assert or believe one of the two at a particular time. 3. I cannot without absurdity assert or believe both of them at the same time.