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Reconquest Spain Muslims and Jews under Christian Rule.

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Presentation on theme: "Reconquest Spain Muslims and Jews under Christian Rule."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reconquest Spain Muslims and Jews under Christian Rule

2 Santiago de Compostela Almanzor, 997 Burial site of St. James/Santiago Legend/history Santiago Matamoros

3 Santiago de Compostela

4 Pilgrimage

5 Matamoros

6 Reconquest Toledo and Alfonso VI ( ) Taifas and tributes Alfonso takes city in 1085

7 Reconquest: major events Navas de Tolosa, 1212 James I of Aragon ( ) – Valencia and the Mediterranean coast Fernando III (1199 or ) – Córdoba (1236) – Seville (1248)

8 Crusading in the Holy Land Jerusalem and pilgrims Rise of Seljuk Turks Tensions in the Holy Land

9 Crusading in the Holy Land Battle with Byzantine Empire, 1071 Alexius Comnenus appeals to the West

10 The Call to Crusade Pope Urban II, 1095 Urban II ’ s motivations and intents

11 Peasants ’ /People ’ s Crusade Unanticipated consequence of crusade Peter the Hermit Anti-Jewish violence Rising Christian-Jewish tensions – Fourth Lateran Council, 1215

12 Aftermath of First Crusade Crusader states – Jerusalem, Antioch, Edessa, Tripoli Kingdom of Jerusalem

13 Reconquest: Military Orders Santiago, Alcántara, Montesa, and Calatrava Legacy

14 Reconquest: Fueros Settlement charters Municipal Diverse and comprehensive Legacy

15 Reconquest and Population Many Muslims move to kingdom of Granada or North Africa Significant Muslim populations in Valencia and Murcia

16 Peninsular Kingdoms

17 Castilian Society and Politics The rise of kings Nobles and Church Towns (concejo, juez, alcaldes)

18 Political Power Rise of Cortes

19 Law Siete Partidas

20 Ideas of Kingship Kings…are vicars of God, placed over the people to maintain them in justice and truth in temporal matters, in the same way as the emperor in his empire…The king is put upon the earth in place of God to render justice and to give each one his right; wherefore he is called the heart and soul of his people. As the soul resides in man's heart and the body lives and is sustained by it, so justice, which is the life and sustenance of the people, resides in the king…As the heart is one and as all the other members receive from it unity in one body, so also all the people of the kingdom…ought to be one with the king, to serve him and to aid him…The king is the head of the kingdom, and as the senses, by which all the members of the body are directed, originate in the head, so also all ought to be directed and guided by the commandment originating with the king, who is lord and head of all the people of the realm…He is the soul and the head, and they are the members [of the body politic]. Siete Partidas (II, 1, 5)

21 Ideas of Kingship "the pope has full power in spiritual matters…and all Christians are bound to keep and observe his spiritual commandments. He also has great power in temporal affairs, but as to what that power is and how great it is, I know little, for I come from Castile and the kings of Castile and their kingdoms are not subject to any other land in the world…" Juan Manuel (d. 1348), Libro de los Estados (II, 36)

22 Muslims under Christian Rule General legal rights Mudéjares Aljamas/morerías

23 Muslims under Christian Rule Religious rights Mosques converted to Christian use Daily life

24 Siete Partidas “The reason that the church, emperors, kings and princes permitted the Jews to dwell among them and with Christians is because they have always lived, as it were, in captivity, as it was constantly in the minds of men that they were descended from those who crucified our Lord Jesus Christ.”

25 Jews under Christian Rule Population Occupations

26 Jews under Christian Rule Prohibitions against new synagogues or improving them Illustration: Sarajevo Haggadah (Barcelona, 1350)

27 Jews under Christian Rule Neighborhoods Legal and judicial autonomy Religious liberty Badge?

28 Jews under Christian Rule Conversion? Jews at court

29 Pogroms of 1391 Anti-Jewish violence Ferrán Martínez Conversos

30 Pogroms Unpacked Events in Valencia v. events in Barcelona Rising social anxieties fueling existing religious tensions Political tensions

31 Ritualized Violence Convivencia? Holy Week violence “Holy Week violence argued for the continued existence of Jews in Christian society, while at the same time articulating the possibility of and conditions for their destruction.” * David Nirenberg

32 Violence and Convivencia “Violence was a central and systemic aspect of the coexistence of majority and minorities. Convivencia was predicated upon violence; it was not its peaceful antithesis.” Girona, 1331

33 Rising anti-Jewish sentiment Vicente Ferrer ( ) Disputation of Tortosa, Context

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