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The Argumentative Essay

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1 The Argumentative Essay
AP Style

2 Analysis and Argument Academic paper = analyze facts or ideas to: make sense of them, tell me their meanings, their significance. Articulate relationships Create rational contexts Argue particular relationships

3 Good Academic Questions
Questions should be: Significant Objective Analytical

4 For example: Why has Europe moved closer to unification since World War Two? How do Western assumptions about the relationship between body and mind influence the practice of medicine? Why can so many post-colonial nations be considered “failed states” many decades after independence? What was the relationship between theology and social context in the early Methodist movement?

5 Your Turn Topic: Modern Technology Education
Create your own academic question

6 Example Questions Does modern technology make life more convenient, or was life better when technology was simpler? Is education is the single most important factor in the development of a country?

7 The Argument The Thesis Example Structures: Describes the relationship
Major terms Example Structures: Because A is of B nature, then C. If A causes B, then B is of C nature. B does not cause C, but A influences both B and C, etc.

8 Relationship / Term A) Increased ethnic tensions PLUS B) Lack of local infrastructure DESPITE C) Influx of foreign aid CAUSES D) The instability of the post- colonial nation-state

9 Relationship / Term A) Bohrs’ approach to physics DIFFERED B) From that of Einstein; This difference is not only REFLECTED C) In the language each uses; it is CONSTRUCTED D) By that language.

10 Logical Arguments A logical argument exists whenever two elements are present: Claim/Assertion EXAMPLE: Most Americans need to exercise more. Support/Evidence EXAMPLE: According to the latest government figures, most Americans are overweight.

11 Five Categories of Claims:
Claims of FACT Examples: The Constitution restricts our right to bear arms. Immigrants are taking away jobs from Americans who need work.

12 Five Categories of Claims:
Claims of DEFINITION Examples: Alcoholism is a disease, not a vice. The death penalty constitutes "cruel and unusual punishment."

13 Five Categories of Claims:
Claims of CAUSE Examples: The popularity of the Internet has led to a rise in plagiarism amongst students. Tougher gun laws would decrease the number of homicides.

14 Five Categories of Claims:
Claims of VALUE Examples: Doctor-assisted suicide is immoral. Violent computer games are detrimental to children’s social development.

15 Five Categories of Claims:
Claims of POLICY Examples: Welfare programs should not be dismantled. The state ought to issue vouchers for parents to use to fund their children’s education.

16 Support hard EVIDENCE; or expert OPINION.

17 Warrant the logical relationship between claim and support
the assumption

18 Warrant Example CLAIM: Most Americans need to exercise more.
SUPPORT According to the latest government figures, most Americans are overweight. WARRANT: Exercise can enable weight loss.

19 Warrant = bridge between claim and support

20 syllogistic reasoning
Connecting abstract and general (deductive reasoning= general to specific) the warrant = the major premise of the syllogism (a categorical rule) the support = the minor premise (a specific instance or case) the claim = the logical conclusion derived from these two premises

21 Qualifications QUALIFICATIONS that acknowledge the limits of your argument. CLAIM: Most Americans need to exercise more. SUPPORT According to the latest government figures, most Americans are overweight. WARRANT: Exercise can enable weight loss. Further Qualification: However, strenuous exercise is not appropriate for those with certain health conditions.

22 Why would you want to qualify your argument?

23 Qualifying Concession Rebuttal

24 Outline Introduction Background Lines of argument
Hook Establishes qualifications Establishes common ground Fair tone States claim Background Necessary information Lines of argument Good reasons (Supports/Warrants) Alternative Arguments Advantages and disadvantages of views (Qualifications) Explains why your view is better Conclusion Summarizes Elaborates the implications of your claim Reinforces credibility Emotional appeal Clear message

25 Essay Topic The German poet Goethe once wrote, “Treat people as if they were what they ought to be and you help them to become what they are capable of being.” Goethe’s statement might be implied to schools, government, social services, business, even to families— any place, really, where people interact with each other. Is Goethe just expressing an unattainable principle of human behavior, or does his ideal have real-life applicability? In a well- organized essay, comment on the validity of Goethe’s statement as a realistic guide to personal relationships. To support your point of view, you may draw evidence from your reading, studies, observation, and personal experiences.

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