2Analysis and ArgumentAcademic paper = analyze facts or ideas to: make sense of them, tell me their meanings, their significance.Articulate relationshipsCreate rational contextsArgue particular relationships
3Good Academic Questions Questions should be:SignificantObjectiveAnalytical
4For example:Why has Europe moved closer to unification since World War Two?How do Western assumptions about the relationship between body and mind influence the practice of medicine?Why can so many post-colonial nations be considered “failed states” many decades after independence?What was the relationship between theology and social context in the early Methodist movement?
5Your Turn Topic: Modern Technology Education Create your own academic question
6Example QuestionsDoes modern technology make life more convenient, or was life better when technology was simpler?Is education is the single most important factor in the development of a country?
7The Argument The Thesis Example Structures: Describes the relationship Major termsExample Structures:Because A is of B nature, then C.If A causes B, then B is of C nature.B does not cause C, but A influences both B and C, etc.
8Relationship / TermA) Increased ethnic tensions PLUS B) Lack of local infrastructure DESPITE C) Influx of foreign aid CAUSES D) The instability of the post- colonial nation-state
9Relationship / TermA) Bohrs’ approach to physics DIFFERED B) From that of Einstein; This difference is not only REFLECTED C) In the language each uses; it is CONSTRUCTED D) By that language.
10Logical ArgumentsA logical argument exists whenever two elements are present:Claim/AssertionEXAMPLE: Most Americans need to exercise more.Support/EvidenceEXAMPLE: According to the latest government figures, most Americans are overweight.
11Five Categories of Claims: Claims of FACTExamples:The Constitution restricts our right to bear arms.Immigrants are taking away jobs from Americans who need work.
12Five Categories of Claims: Claims of DEFINITIONExamples:Alcoholism is a disease, not a vice.The death penalty constitutes "cruel and unusual punishment."
13Five Categories of Claims: Claims of CAUSEExamples:The popularity of the Internet has led to a rise in plagiarism amongst students.Tougher gun laws would decrease the number of homicides.
14Five Categories of Claims: Claims of VALUEExamples:Doctor-assisted suicide is immoral.Violent computer games are detrimental to children’s social development.
15Five Categories of Claims: Claims of POLICYExamples:Welfare programs should not be dismantled.The state ought to issue vouchers for parents to use to fund their children’s education.
20syllogistic reasoning Connecting abstract and general (deductive reasoning= general to specific)the warrant = the major premise of the syllogism (a categorical rule)the support = the minor premise (a specific instance or case)the claim = the logical conclusion derived from these two premises
21QualificationsQUALIFICATIONS that acknowledge the limits of your argument.CLAIM: Most Americans need to exercise more.SUPPORT According to the latest government figures, most Americans are overweight.WARRANT: Exercise can enable weight loss.Further Qualification: However, strenuous exercise is not appropriate for those with certain health conditions.
24Outline Introduction Background Lines of argument HookEstablishes qualificationsEstablishes common groundFair toneStates claimBackgroundNecessary informationLines of argumentGood reasons (Supports/Warrants)Alternative ArgumentsAdvantages and disadvantages of views (Qualifications)Explains why your view is betterConclusionSummarizesElaborates the implications of your claimReinforces credibilityEmotional appealClear message
25Essay TopicThe German poet Goethe once wrote, “Treat people as if they were what they ought to be and you help them to become what they are capable of being.”Goethe’s statement might be implied to schools, government, social services, business, even to families— any place, really, where people interact with each other. Is Goethe just expressing an unattainable principle of human behavior, or does his ideal have real-life applicability? In a well- organized essay, comment on the validity of Goethe’s statement as a realistic guide to personal relationships. To support your point of view, you may draw evidence from your reading, studies, observation, and personal experiences.