3Defining termsSociety – an association of people organized under a system of rules designed to advance the good of its members over time.Morality – rules of conduct describing what people ought and ought not to do in various situations.Ethics – the philosophical study of morality, a rational examination into people’s moral beliefs and behavior.
4Ethics vs. MoralityAn analogy explaining the difference between ethics and morality. Imagine society as a town. Morality is the road network within the town. People doing ethics are in balloons floating above the town.
5General scenarios Scenario 2 Questions: Did the anti-spam organization do anything wrong?Did the ISPs that refused to accept the from the blacklisted ISPs do anything wrong?Who benefited from the organization’s action?Who was hurt by the organization’s action?Could the organization have achieved it’s goals through a better course of action?What additional information, if any, would help you answer the previous questions?
6General Scenarios Scenario 4 Questions: Should you recommend release of the product next week?Who will benefit if the company follows your recommendation?Who will be harmed if the company follows your recommendation?Do you have an obligation to any group of people that may be affected by your decision?What additional information, if any, would help you answer the previous questions?
8Subjective relativism Relativism – the theory that there are no universal moral norms of right and wrongSubjective Relativism – each person decides right and wrong for himself or herself“What’s right for you may not be right for me.”
9Subjective relativism The Case for Subjective RelativismWell-meaning and intelligent people can have totally opposite opinions about moral issues.Ethical debates are disagreeable and pointless.The Case against Subjective RelativismThe line between doing what you think is right and doing what you want to do is not sharply drawn.Makes no moral distinction between the actions of different peopleSubjective relativism and tolerance are two different things.Allows people to make decisions based on something other than reason
10Cultural RelativismCultural Relativism – the ethical theory that meaning of “right” and “wrong” rests with a society’s actual moral guidelinesThe Case for Cultural RelativismDifferent social contexts demand different moral guidelines.It is arrogant for one society to judge another.
11Cultural Relativism The Case against Cultural Relativism Does not explain how an individual determines the moral guidelines of a particular societyDoes not explain how to determine right from wrong when there are no cultural normsSocieties do, in fact, share certain core values.Cultural relativism is only indirectly based on reason.
12Divine Command TheoryThe divine command theory of ethics is based on two premises: good actions are those actions aligned with the will of God, and God’s will has been revealed to us.
13Divine command theory The Case for the Divine Command Theory We owe obedience to our Creator.God is all-good and all-knowing.God is the ultimate authority.The Case against the Divine Command TheoryThere are many holy books, and some of their teachings disagree with each other.It is unrealistic to assume a multicultural society will adopt a religion-based morality.Some moral problems are not addressed directly in scripture.It is fallacious to equate “the good” with “God.”Based on obedience, not reason
14Ethical EgoismEthical Egoism – the philosophy that each person should focus exclusively on his or her self-interestEthical Egoism does not prohibit acting to help someone else, but assisting another is the right thing to do if and only if it is in the helper’s own long-term best interest
15Ethical egoism The Case for Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoism is a practical moral philosophy.The community can benefit when individuals put their well-being first.Other moral principles are rooted in the principle of self-interest.
16Ethical egoism The Case against Ethical Egoism The premise that people naturally act in their own long-term self-interest is false.There are plenty of examples of injustices that have occurred when powerful individuals put their own interests above those of the communityOther moral principles are superior to the principle of self-interest.Ethical egoism is a form of bigotry.
17KantianismKantianism is the name given to the ethical theory of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant.Kant believed that people’s actions ought to be guided by moral laws, and that these moral laws were universal.Kantianism is based on the premise that rational beings can use logic to explain the why behind their solutions to ethical problems
18KantianismKant proposes the Categorical Imperative: (1) Act only from moral rules that you can at the same time will to be universal moral laws. (2) Act so that you always treat both yourself and other people as ends in themselves, and never only as a means to an end.
19Kantianism The Case for Kantianism The Case against Kantianism It is rationalProduces universal moral guidelinesAll persons are treated as moral equals.The Case against KantianismSometimes no single rule fully characterizes an action.Sometimes there is no way to resolve a conflict between rules.Allows no exceptions to perfect duties
20Act utilitarianismPrincipal of Utility – An action is right (or wrong) to the extent that it increases (or decreases) the total happiness of the affected parties.Utility – the tendency of an object to produce happiness or prevent unhappiness for an individual or community.Act Utilitarianism – the ethical theory that an action is good if its net effect (over all affected beings) is to produce more happiness than unhappiness.
21Act utilitarianism Attributes of Evaluation: Intensity – magnitude of the experienceDuration – how long the experience lastsCertainty – probability it will actually happenPropinquity – how close the experience is in space and timeFecundity- its ability to produce more experiences of the same kindPurity – extent to which pleasure is not diluted by pain, or vice-versaExtent – number of people affected
22Act Utilitarianism The Case for Act Utilitarianism It focuses on happiness.It is straightforward.It is comprehensive.The Case against Act UtilitarianismWhen evaluating, it is not clear where to draw the line.It is not practical to put so much energy into every moral decision.Ignores our innate sense of dutyWe cannot predict with certainty the consequences of an action.Susceptible to the problem of moral luck
23Rule UtilitarianismActions are moral when they conform to the rules that lead to the greatest good.
24Rule Utilitarianism The Case for Rule Utilitarianism Not every moral decision requires someone to weigh the positives and negatives of a situation.Solves the problem of moral luck. A rule utilitarian would say that sending flowers to people in the hospital is a good action.It appeals to a wide cross section of society.The Case against Rule UtilitarianismForces us to use a single scale or measure to evaluate completely differently kinds of consequences.Ignores the problem of an unjust distribution of good consequences.
25Social Contract Theory Implies that people give up sovereignty to a government or other authority in order to receive or maintain social order through the rule of law.
26Social Contract Theory The Case for Social Contract TheoryIt is framed in the language of rights.Explains why rational people act out of self- interest in the absence of a common agreement.Provides a clear ethical analysis of some important moral issues regarding the relationship between people and government.The Case against Social Contract TheoryNone of us signed the social contract.Some actions can be characterized in multiple ways.May be unjust to those people who are incapable of upholding their side of the contract.
27Comparing Workable Ethical Theories The divine command theory, ethical egoism, Kantianism, act utilitarianism, rule utilitarianism, and social contract theory share the viewpoint that moral good and moral precepts are objective.
28Comparing Workable Ethical Theories Kantianism, utilitarianism, and social contract theory explicitly take other people into consideration when defining what makes an action morally correct, which sets these theories apart from ethical egoism.Kantianism, act utilitarianism, rule utilitarianism, and social contract theory are the most workable.Act utilitarian considers the consequences of the action, computing the total change in utility to determine if an action is right or wrong.
29SummaryEthics is a rational examination into people's moral beliefs and behaviors.Divine Command Theory is based on the idea that God provided us with moral guidelines designed to promote our well-being.Ethical egoism is the belief that the right thing for a person to do in any situation is the action that will benefit him or her the most.Kantianism is based on the notion that people’s actions ought to be guided by universal moral laws.
30SummaryAct Utilitarianism is based upon the Principle of Utility, also called the Greatest Happiness Principle.Rule utilitarianism is when actions are moral when they conform to the rules that lead to the greatest good.Social Contract Theory implies that people give up sovereignty to a government or other authority in order to receive or maintain social order through the rule of law.