Presentation on theme: "Plant Analogy Helps account for moral growthHelps account for moral growth –Knowledge as discriminating ability (branching) not guided by language(branching)"— Presentation transcript:
Plant Analogy Helps account for moral growthHelps account for moral growth –Knowledge as discriminating ability (branching) not guided by language(branching) not guided by language –And as ease of (moral) action Explain evil (weeds and environment)Explain evil (weeds and environment) Justify liberal politics (soil)Justify liberal politics (soil) Shi-fei this-not this 是 非to 智 zhi wisdomShi-fei this-not this 是 非to 智 zhi wisdom –Growth of intuitive responsive motivation –Neo-Confucian moral “metaphysics” and the sage
Issues Strong-weak choice (Conf. detail)Strong-weak choice (Conf. detail) –Weak interpretation plausible, strong needed to defend against moral reform Normative result = Mozi (Utilitarian)Normative result = Mozi (Utilitarian) –Moral psychology for universal concern Problem: is moral psychology relevantProblem: is moral psychology relevant –Can’t get “ought” from “is” –Mencius’ strategies: unique, health, choose!
Two Principles Link fact & duty:Link fact & duty: –"Is-ought": “is” does not imply “ought” Undermines Mencius’ appeal to natureUndermines Mencius’ appeal to nature –"Ought-can:" ought implies can Is moral reform possible (yes) Is moral reform possible (yes) Anti-language implicationsAnti-language implications –Avoid 2 roots—foolish man –Good language can inspire but not contribute Bad language can disrupt and destroyBad language can disrupt and destroy
Questions Coffee Tutorial today w/ questions Back to some Basic concepts (divisions) of philosophy Ethics
Teleological V Deontological Normative Ethics: Two TypesNormative Ethics: Two Types –Teleological & deontological (duty) Consequence/result, look forward, do for resultConsequence/result, look forward, do for result Duty, desert, merit, look backward, for own sakeDuty, desert, merit, look backward, for own sake Deontology v utilitarianismDeontology v utilitarianism –Telling truth, keeping promises, justice and freedom –Is punishment justified Grades on examination—result, encouragement, effort?Grades on examination—result, encouragement, effort? Christian duties (10 commandments)Christian duties (10 commandments) Standards apply to aspects of moralityStandards apply to aspects of morality –Acts or rules (system)
Mozi Resembles Rule Utility Evaluate individual actions or “patterns”Evaluate individual actions or “patterns” Evaluate a tradition by how people governed by it actEvaluate a tradition by how people governed by it act –Actually tradition or 道 discourse dao utilitarian Tests for Rule v Act UtilityTests for Rule v Act Utility –White lies –Keeping Promises –Birth control –War and deterrence
Daoism: Early History Hermits and Yang Zhu 楊朱: No theory of 道 but a Daoist attitudeHermits and Yang Zhu 楊朱: No theory of 道 but a Daoist attitude First theoretical Daoist: Shen Dao慎 到First theoretical Daoist: Shen Dao慎 到 –Natural performance dao guide 道 –Sum of all actual performance 道dao guides is the great dao 大 道 The complete history of the universeThe complete history of the universe –You will follow大 道—no knowledge of 道 needed
Three Determinisms Logical, Scientific, FatalisticLogical, Scientific, Fatalistic –What will be will be A = A Like Parmenides “what is is”Like Parmenides “what is is” Tautology=true by meaning/grammarTautology=true by meaning/grammar –How to be right w/o saying anything Don’t ___too much; Do what you should do.Don’t ___too much; Do what you should do. Doesn’t entail anything else—free willDoesn’t entail anything else—free will Scientific: induction on experienceScientific: induction on experience –Things happen by predictable laws (causal) –Generalize: everything predictable in advance
Fatalism Claim that your decision/will cannot affect the world, outcome, futureClaim that your decision/will cannot affect the world, outcome, future –Out of human control –Argument (one of the above or theological) Does fatalism follow?Does fatalism follow? –Not from logical determinism—study\pass –From causal? Probably not Soft determinism says free will does not contradict causal predictabilitySoft determinism says free will does not contradict causal predictability God’s foreknowledge?God’s foreknowledge?
慎 到Shen Dao’s Problems Draws fatalism conclusionDraws fatalism conclusion –From logical determinism –There is just one future actual history The one caused by my (our) actionsThe one caused by my (our) actions Unnatural natural adviceUnnatural natural advice –Knowing & judgment “natural” for humans Paradox of "abandon knowledge“Paradox of "abandon knowledge“ –道 Dao as the object of knowledge Knowing dao—not needed abandonKnowing dao—not needed abandon Obey it only if you ignore itObey it only if you ignore it
Laozi老子 Textual issuesTextual issues The Zhuangzi's historyThe Zhuangzi's history –Between Shendao and Zhuangzi Abandon knowledge w/o relying on fatalismAbandon knowledge w/o relying on fatalism –Argument from freedom from social control –Spontaneity
Analysis of "Knowledge" Discourse 道 daos: come in oppositesDiscourse 道 daos: come in opposites –Names 名(opposites) –Distinctions (implied: one per pair) –Desires 欲 Innovation in seeing desires generated by names/distinctionsInnovation in seeing desires generated by names/distinctions – 為 wei deem:do action
Problem: Same Paradox? Distinction of natural and conventional desiresDistinction of natural and conventional desires –Forms of social constraint –Language distorts by gross distinction while there are infinite shades in nature Desire to be naturalDesire to be natural Act on the desire (forgetting)Act on the desire (forgetting) 無 為 wu lack wei deem:do a paradox無 為 wu lack wei deem:do a paradox –Wu-wei and yet wu-bu-wei無不為 –no concept guided action
No Constant Dao 道可道非常道 Any dao that guides is not constant dao-ing道可道非常道 Any dao that guides is not constant dao-ing Because based on 名 andBecause based on 名 and – 名可名非常名 Any name that names is not constant name-ing Negative 道 dao guide by emphasizing opposite virtuesNegative 道 dao guide by emphasizing opposite virtues –Passive, lower, water, cool, submissive, female –Constant 道 dao guide ? Unspeakable?
Relevance to Mencius The intuitions that Confucians think are natural are socially cultivatedThe intuitions that Confucians think are natural are socially cultivated –Burial, filial piety, attitudes to authority –Status, wealth, style Hong Kong slaveryHong Kong slavery –Innate天 道 is very thin Eat, sleep, children, farm, small villagesEat, sleep, children, farm, small villages
Common Anti-language Problem 墨 辯 Mohist semantic analysis:墨 辯 Mohist semantic analysis: –To say “language bad” is bad –Paradox of the liar This sentence is falseThis sentence is false All Sentences are falseAll Sentences are false –Not a paradox –But false Challenge to ZhuangziChallenge to Zhuangzi
Puzzle All language distorts the 道 daoAll language distorts the 道 dao
Zhuangzi: Textual Issues Relation to LaoziRelation to Laozi –Probably earlier –No contact or knowledge (mostly later students) –Project a similarity of focus Construction of desires from language/cultureConstruction of desires from language/culture Relation to School of Names名 家 closerRelation to School of Names名 家 closer –Friend of 惠 施 Hui Shi Deals with anti-language paradox betterDeals with anti-language paradox better
Pipes of 天tian nature:sky Human voices and arguing about philosophy is naturalHuman voices and arguing about philosophy is natural –Like birds tweeting and frogs croaking Gives Yangzhu, Mozi and Mencius what they wantGives Yangzhu, Mozi and Mencius what they want –Not worth anything –Want authority over rivals and天tian nature:sky fails Hint from Shen Dao—no normative contentHint from Shen Dao—no normative content Pure fact—no ought/valuePure fact—no ought/value
Priority of Dao over天 Must presuppose a 道 dao guideMust presuppose a 道 dao guide For a Daoist, 道 dao guide the authority, not 天 tian nature:skyFor a Daoist, 道 dao guide the authority, not 天 tian nature:sky –The cosmos doesn't make guiding judgments-- all from a 道dao guide –Cannot escape responsibility for our own dao judgments Should I follow天 tian nature:sky ?Should I follow天 tian nature:sky ? No matter what authorityNo matter what authority
Refutation of Mencius Should follow our hearts and should follow 天 tian nature:sky (性 xing nature )Should follow our hearts and should follow 天 tian nature:sky (性 xing nature ) –All organs are equally natural C.f. Mencius' weedsC.f. Mencius' weeds –How do you是shi this:right a favorite? Rely on the心 xin heart-mind ? Begs the questionRely on the心 xin heart-mind ? Begs the question Take turns or have no ruler?Take turns or have no ruler?