Presentation on theme: "An Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) for observation and understanding of the role of the tropical Amazonian ecosystem under climate change conditions."— Presentation transcript:
An Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) for observation and understanding of the role of the tropical Amazonian ecosystem under climate change conditions Jürgen Kesselmeier, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany XXIII SSC Meeting – Alter do Chao- PA – March
OBJECTIVE To obtain reliable estimates of sources and sinks for the greenhouse gases CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O as well as reactive trace gases and aerosol formation. An Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) for observation and understanding of the role of the tropical Amazonian ecosystem under climate change conditions
Changes in forest cover and carbon storage indicate hotspots: Tropical forest ecosystems Distribution of global forests (http://www.unep-wcmc.org/forest/original.htm) and carbon cycle hotspots (Heimann, M.; MPI-BG, Jena), NEESPI Summit, Helsinki, Finland May 3-4, 2007)
AMAZONIA AS A HOTSPOT CARBON SINK/SOURCE (Vegetation, soils) HYDROLOGY (Evaporation, Rainfall, Rivers) ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY (Oxidative capacity) ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS (Aerosols, clouds, surface energy budget) It is evident that ATTO will sail under the LBA flag.
Visit of State Secretary Meyer-Krahmer, November 2007
HISTORY 14. January 2008 DRAFT IDEA submitted to State Secretary Prof. F. Meyer-Krahmer 21. May 2008 PROPOSAL ATTO submitted to BMBF. 15. November 2008 First ATTO Workshop at the Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus 20. November 2008 Science Plan “An Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) for observation and understanding of the role of the tropical Amazonian ecosystem under climate change conditions” Draft to BMBF January 2009 Final Science Plan writing at the MCT in Brasilia 22. January 2009 Final Science Plan submitted to MCT State Secretary Luiz Antonio Barreto de Castro 23. January 2009 Final Science Plan submitted to BMBF 25. January 2009 Science Plan Summary submitted to BMBF 27. January 2009 Comments “Cost distributions” submitted to BMBF 13. February 2009 Comments “Basic Financial Cost Covering after 5 years” submitted to BMBF 12. March 2009 Memorandum of Understanding signed by Ministers Schavan and Rezende
The present proposal includes four small satellite towers (of about 70 m agl) to be placed around the ATTO (see figure below).
ATTO GOALS I. -To observe and interprete the relationships between climate, atmospheric chemistry and ecosystems during a period of rapid regional and global change by measurements outside the surface layer. -- To observe continuously anthropogenic and biogenic greenhouse gases in the lower troposphere within and outside the planetary boundary layer to contribute to the use of inverse methods to derive continental sources and sink strengths and their changes over time fostering our understanding of natural and anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere and climate. - To measure continuously trace gases and aerosols for improvement of our understanding atmospheric chemistry and physics and further allow a continuous assessment of land use change and its effect on the atmosphere and climate.
ATTO GOALS II. - To determine the concentrations, sinks and sources of radiative greenhouse gases - To assess turbulence and transport processes in the atmospheric boundary layer - To estimate biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange rates
ATTO GOALS III. To determine vertical trace compound profiles allowing estimations of sources and sinks at the surface. -To develop and validate dynamic vegetation models, atmospheric boundary layer models and inverse models for description of heat, moisture, aerosol and trace gas fluxes - To evaluate satellite estimates of greenhouse gases, temperature and humidity profiles
Potential ATTO Partners, Express of interests MPIC, Mainz, GermanyCO, nitrogen oxides, VOCs, oxidative reactivity, nocturnal residual boundary layer; vegetation classification of footprint; MPIBG, Jena, Germany greenhouse gas measurements, CO2, CH4, N2O, isotopes, LIDAR, inverse modeling MPIM, Hamburg, GermanyClimate modeling, hydrological cycle, land use change, cloud formation, large scale atmospheric flow ; boundary layer profiles of water, temperature and humidity IFT, Leipzig, Germanyaerosol sampling at 300 m; size distribution, optical measurements University, Helsinki, FinlandBoundary layer processes Wageningen University, Netherlandsland atmosphere interaction, nocturnal processes, boundary layer - trace gas exchange; upscaling, modeling Harvard University, USA CO2 cycling, modeling, aerosol properties, transformation UEA, Manaus, Brazilwater vapor, metorology, CCN, aerosols, cloud properties, UAV measurements INPA, Manaus, Brazil transport processes, biomass, vegetation classification, biogeochemistry, plant physiology USP, Sao Paulo, Brazil aerosols, CCN, aerosol mass INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazilturbulence processes, roughness layer, gravity waves, stable boundary layer UFSM, Santa Maria-RS, Brazil turbulence exchange processes, mesoscale processes
There was agreement between MCT and BMBF within a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by the two ministers on 12. March 2009 in Sao Paulo to finance 8. 4 Million Euros (10 Million US$). The costs will be distributed equally between the two countries. BUDGET
Milestones Site selection Road access Power line Tower foundations Tower construction Equipment acquisition Tower equipment Start of measurements black boxes = proposed working time according to season grey boxes = variable working time depending on seasonal conditions
How to continue? Foundation of an ATTO Office Brazilian and German representatives jointly cooperating Launching a special department within INPA/LBA for example could be a solution to deal with the additional work. German collaborators might be embedded as deputies and the INPA-LBA-Head might delegate functions and rights to these representatives.
How to continue? Identification of an ATTO site Science, Access, Electricity, Safety Site identification team Antonio Manzi (INPA-LBA) Jose Galúcio Campos (INPA-LBA) Alessandro Araujo (INPA-LBA) Rosa Maria Nascimento dos Santos (UEA) Jochen Schoengart (INPA-Max-Planck)
How to continue? Identification of an ATTO site Two proposals yet: 1) Rebio de Uatuma (Federal Conservation Unit) North East of Balbina This type of federal reservation unit might produce some problems. An access road from Balbina village in northeast direction must be constructed. Does this type of Conservation Unit permits a road construction? 2) Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Uatuma (State's Conservation Unit) South East of Balbina; South East of PDS Morena Responsible institution: Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (SDS); Centro Estadual de Unidades de Conservação (CEUC/SDS).
How to continue? Identification of an ATTO site MEETING on 16. March at INPA, Manaus Antonio Manzi (INPA-LBA) Jose Galúcio Campos (INPA-LBA) Alessandro Araujo (INPA-LBA) Rosa Maria Nascimento dos Santos (UEA) Domingos Macedo (CEUC/SDS) Jochen Schoengart (INPA-Max-Planck) Juergen Kesselmeier (Max-Planck)
BELA VISTA ATTO ? PDS MORENA 20 – 25 km
How to continue? Identification of an ATTO site Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Uatuma Area: ha, Terra firme Access via Ramal Morena (Dirt Road) and River Uatumã (Boat) Access via a new road to be built together with the power line Travel time from Manaus: 6 hours Supported by SDS Power line with 350 KWh will be available at PDS Morena (CLAIRE 2010) Road construction from PDS Morena should be possible Road construction from Bela Vista would also be possible but might cause an uncontrolled access. NÁDIA CRISTINA DÁVILA FERREIRA (Secretária de Estado do Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável) phoned Antonio Manzi and let us know that she supports any site within SDS releated areas!
How to continue? Foundation of a construction office/department Proposal: Construction planning to be arranged with the Construction Unit of the Max Planck Society, Munich. They are experienced due to the existing Siberian tower. The Max Planck construction unit will closely cooperate with the Brazilian side supported by a professional Brazilian construction company. Principal is INPA, Brazil.
Visit of State Secretary Meyer-Krahmer, November 2007
Acknowledgements (I apologize for not being able to list the names of all contributing colleagues, but here are the most important ones) State Secretary Frieder Meyer-Krahmer (BMBF, Germany) State Secretary Luiz Antonio Barreto de Castro (MCT, Brazil) Ricardo Melamed (MCT, Brazil) Adalberto Val (INPA, Manaus) Antonio Manzi (INPA, Manaus) Marilene Corrêa da Silva Freitas (UEA, Manaus) Meinrat O. Andreae (MPIC, Mainz) Jochen Schöngart and Florian Wittmann (INPA/Max Planck, Manaus)