TenseModalForm Simple Present Can he play football? Is he able to play football? Is he allowed to play football? Simple Past Could he play football? Was he able to play football? Was he allowed to play football? will-future Do not use can in the will-future. Will he be able to play football? Will he be allowed to play football? Questions
Use (CAN)Examples ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to) I can speak English. permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) Can I go to the cinema? requestCan you wait a moment, please? offerI can lend you my car till tomorrow. suggestionCan we visit Grandma at the weekend? possibilityIt can get very hot in Arizona.
Use (COULD)Examples ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to) I could speak English. permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to) I could go to the cinema. polite question *Could I go to the cinema, please? polite request *Could you wait a moment, please? polite offer *I could lend you my car till tomorrow. polite suggestion * Could we visit Grandma at the weekend? possibility *It could get very hot in Montana.
Use (MAY)Examples possibilityIt may rain today. permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) May I go to the cinema? polite suggestionMay I help you?
Use ( MIGHT)Examples possibility (less possible than may) * It might rain today. hesitant offer *Might I help you?
Use MUSTExamples force, necessity I must go to the supermarket today. possibilityYou must be tired. advice, recommendation You must see the new film with Brad Pitt. Use MUST NOTExamples Prohibition You mustn't work on dad's computer.
Use (NEED NOT)Examples not necessary I needn't go to the supermarket, we're going to the restaurant tonight.
Use (OUGHT TO)Examples Advice You ought to drive carefully in bad weather. Obligation You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.
Use (SHALL) Examples SuggestionShall I carry your bag? instead of will in the 1st person
Use (SHOULD)Examples Advice You should drive carefully in bad weather. Obligation You should switch off the light when you leave the room.
Use (WILL)Examples wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would) Will you please shut the door? prediction, assumptionI think it will rain on Friday. PromiseI will stop smoking. spontaneous decision Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will.
Use (WOULD)Examples wish, request (more polite than will) Would you shut the door, please? habits in the past (used to) Sometimes he would bring me some flowers. * no past forms - future forms
have to in affirmative sentences (Simple Present) Example: I/we/you/they have to get up early. He/she/it has to get up early. I have to be at work at 8 am.
have to in negative sentences (Simple Present) Example: I/we/you/they do not have to get up early. He/she/it does not have to get up early. I don’t have to hurry,we have 1 hour more to kill
have to in questions (Simple Present) Example: Do I/we/you/they have to get up early? Does he/she/it have to get up early Do I have to obey your rules? No I don’t think so…
had to in affirmative sentences (Simple Past) Example: I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they had to get up early. As I missed the bus yesterday I had to take taxi
Must –have to –have got to necessity / obligation You must not cross the street when the light is red You must not work so hard.you will be ill.(strong advice)
Need not/don’t need to /don’t have to I don’t have to go to school tomorrow because it is statutory holiday. I need not…………. I don not need to………
forms (needn’t-don’t have to forms (needn’t-don’t have to I did not have to go shopping.My husband had already done.. ( zorunda kalmadım ) You needn’t have washed the dishes.I was going to put them in a dish washer( yapman gerekmezdi)
Perfect modals Your book is not here.You must have left it in the classroom.(unutmuş olmalısın) She got the low mark in the exam.She might not have/may not have studied enough.(yeterince çalışmamış olabilir)
Yestarday it was my day off.I could have gone to the cinema.(gidebilirdim ama gitmedim) Yesterday she was not at home.she could have gone to the cinema.(gitmiş olabilir) His leg has been in plaster.He couldn’t have gone to match.(gitmiş olamaz) He had a match but he didn’t go.We found out that the match had ben cancelled.So he couldn’t have gone even if he had wanted to.(isteseydi bile gidemezdi)
ADVISABILITY Should- ought to-had better I overslept and I was late for the exam. I should have set my alarm- clock.( kurmalıydım ) I was caught red-handed by my mum while smoking.I shouldn’t have told lie.( söylememeliydim )
Be supposed to =should (expectation) What are you supposed to do in the apartment? I am supposed to pay the dues regularly I am supposed to participate in the apartment meetings. I am supposed to keep the stairs clean. I am supposed to be respectful for the other neighbours
BE TO (EXPECTATION) = (BE SUPPOSED TO) The film is to start at 11:30 (strong) The train is supposed to arrive in an hour. You are not to start before I give the green light.=must’nt
What aren’t you supposed to do in the apartment? ?....?.... What is a student supposed to do during the lesson? ?....?.... What is a Muslim supposed to do in Ramadan? ?....
Be allowed to =can (permission) not ability What are you allowed to do at work? I am allowed to work. What aren’t you allowed to do at work/school I am not allowed to smoke I am not allowed to……….