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QUESTIONING CONVENTIONAL WISDOM. Read 327a – 331d – Identify the characters and their audience Identify Cephalus’ view of ‘justice’ in his discussion.

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Presentation on theme: "QUESTIONING CONVENTIONAL WISDOM. Read 327a – 331d – Identify the characters and their audience Identify Cephalus’ view of ‘justice’ in his discussion."— Presentation transcript:

1 QUESTIONING CONVENTIONAL WISDOM

2 Read 327a – 331d – Identify the characters and their audience Identify Cephalus’ view of ‘justice’ in his discussion with Socrates What is Socrates’ response? JUSTICE IS NOT…

3 Why is justice NOT paying back one’s debts or returning what one has borrowed? What conventional wisdom can we compare that to today? e – 336a 1.What is Polemarcus’ definition of justice? 2.What is Socrates’ response? 3.Write down something you read in the section that was interesting to you and explain why.

4 JUSTICE IS NOT… Paying back one’s debts because…. Doing good to one’s friends, if one knows they’re good, or harm to one’s enemies, if one knows they’re bad, because… “Standard of Excellence” – What something ‘ought to be’ (its excellence) Humans ought to be______ ; therefore, ________men would not to do _________to be good.

5 TICKET OUT… Write a 5 line response starting with: –The Republic’s discussion about justice reminds me about the issue of _____________ today.

6 c T – MAN VS. SOCRATES 1.What’s Socrates’ first argument against “justice is in the interest of the stronger…?” 2.According to MR. T, how could doing wrong actually be right? Is human nature amoral, immoral, or moral? 3.What’s Socrates’ response?

7 A “Just” Professional (Leader) Socrates As a professional, one’s skill or ______ is different than one’s ability to earn _______ LIKE…. A just ‘leader’s skill to look after his ‘subjects’ is different than what’s in his _____ - _______ Thrasymachus

8 PLEASE DO… Quietly read c What is Socrates’ saying about competition? How can this relate to a real life issue?

9 TICKET OUT… Read and analyze the handout about the Sophists Highlight and annotate one part of the handout that relates to Socrates’ and Thrasymachus’ discussion on justice

10 “FUNCTION ANALOGY” Cut out and color a set of eyes, ears, and a “mind” On the cut out, write a quote from The Republic describing its function Put your group’s ‘functions’ together in the back of the room

11 RING OF GYGES Read quietly, c. 357b – 361c What is Glaucon’s perspective on justice? –Write down a quote and your thoughts on that perspective –fill out handout throughout our discussion and hand in at the end of class Pay close attention to the story of the Ring of Gyges, c.359d – 360d.

12 SOCRATIC SEMINAR Allow speaker to finish thoughts; DO NOT be afraid of silence Do NOT raise hands; take turns Use the text! Bring others into the conversation (“Kim, what do you think about…?”) Ask for elaboration; do not stay confused (“Tim, What do you mean by..?”) Talk to each other; not the teacher Discuss ideas and raise questions Limit our opinions

13 Perspectives on ‘Justice’ THRASYMACHUS  Justice is what’s in the interest of the stronger  Doing wrong is doing right b/c doing right is only what those in power say is right; not what’s right for me.  The purpose of organized society is to benefit those in power  My contemporaries are KARL MARX, FREDERICH NIETSZCHE  It is RIGHT to act out of self interest GLAUCON  Justice is a compromise  The Ring of Gyges says people if given the opportunity, will do wrong if there is no consequence  The purpose of organized society is to protect ourselves from each other  My contemporaries are  THOMAS HOBBES, JOHN LOCKE  It is NATURAL to act out of self interest

14 THRASYMACHUS GLAUCON

15 “The Guardian” “A philosophic disposition, high spirits, speed, and strength.” c. 376c Complete your visual description of a “guardian” Label the qualities of a “Guardian” with their physical traits. i.e. – “high spirits” from their heart Awards – Most Creative, Most Informative

16 “The Guardian” TICKET IN…. 1. Quietly re – read c c. 2. Write a minimum 5 line response explaining how you, as a philosopher, ought to act as a ‘watchdog’/ ‘guardian.’

17 “Pyramid of Justice” Create a “pyramid of justice” for your life Each personal characteristic (3) should lead to your justice as an individual –just as the 3 classes of the Republic lead to a ‘just state.’ Each characteristic should be dependent upon the other – without ‘one’ the others can’t exist Define the meaning of each characteristic through a quote from “The Republic”

18 “The 3 Classes and their Mutual Relations” GOLD CLASS What is the story of the Myth of the Metals teaching you as citizens of the state? What qualities make up your class? –What are your skills? –What functions ought you to perform? –What are the pros and cons to your life?

19 “The 3 Classes and their Mutual Relations” SILVER CLASS What is the story of the Myth of the Metals teaching you as citizens of the state? What qualities make up your class? –What are your skills? –What functions ought you to perform? –What are the pros and cons to your life?

20 “The 3 Classes and their Mutual Relations” BRONZE CLASS What is the story of the Myth of the Metals teaching you as citizens of the state? What qualities make up your class? –What are your skills? –What functions ought you to perform? –What are the pros and cons to your life?

21 JUSTICE IS… –GOLD CLASS – Rulers – –SILVER CLASS – Auxiliaries –BRONZE CLASS Skilled Craftsmen ?

22 YAY!!!!! JUSTICE IS… ‘The sum of 4 qualities within a state’ 1.GOLD CLASS – 2.SILVER CLASS – 3.BRONZE CLASS 4.The effective function of the three classes qualifies a ‘just’ state YOU WANT ANSWERS? I’LL GIVE YOU ANSWERS!

23 YAY!!!!! JUSTICE IS… ‘The sum of 4 qualities within a state’ 1.GOLD CLASS – Wisdom of the state one’s ability to use “reason” wisely 2.SILVER CLASS – Courage in the state one’s ability to be courageous or have “spirit” 3.BRONZE CLASS A disciplined state one’s ability to temper its’ “appetite” (self – interest) 4. The effective function of the three classes qualifies a ‘just’ state one’s ability to be ‘just’ YOU WANT ANSWERS? I’LL GIVE YOU ANSWERS!

24 Does individual justice exist? –GOLD - Wisdom –SILVER - Courage –BRONZE / IRON – Discipline (Self – Love) Did his closed text work? How does it fit? JUSTICE IS “MINDING ONE’S BUSINESS” 433.e

25 TICKET OUT… FIVE LINE RESPONSE How is Plato’s definition of justice applicable/not applicable to your life?

26 Questioning “Conventional Wisdom” Does American culture define justice as “MINDING ONE’S BUSINESS?”

27 EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC “ The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.” -Aristotle

28 EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC What do you feel should be the main goal of public education today? 1.To teach children the skills in attaining knowledge (reading, writing, arithmetic). 2.To invest in productive and skilled citizens in order to progress society. 3.To instill a sense of character in children. 4.To provide opportunities for children to interact with members of their community (socialization). 5.To teach children the values of what it means to be an American.

29 EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC “ The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.” -Aristotle  How does Socrates’ views on censorship fit into the ‘closed text’?  Comparisons and contradictions to the American educational system?  According to Socrates, should censorship be left to the family or the state? Why?

30 TODAY’S READING #1’s – Read starting 376c about the content of “literary education” #2’s – Read starting 392d about the form of “literary education” #3’s – Read starting 398b about “musical requirements” (content and form) Identify 3 main characteristics of education in the Republic as it pertains to your reading. Include citation #’s to support each characteristic Fill out a T-Chart identifying similarities and differences between education in the Republic and your education in CRSD.

31 Education in the Republic CONTENT FORM

32 COMPARISONS WITH CRSD Similarities Differences

33 Plato Metaphysics –Things that are real are absolute –Therefore things cannot change constantly the way our apparent reality changes

34 Plato Theory of Forms –Forms Unchangeable Not interpreted by senses Interpreted by reason and logic –The realm we perceive is not real –It is an imitation of reality

35 THE FORMS (the ‘true’ object) / “KNOWLEDGE” CONCEPTS / UNIVERSALS (the idea of the object in your mind) / “UNDERSTANDING” Particulars / Objects (the ‘object itself’) / “BELIEF” Reflections / Copies (representations) / “CONJECTURE”

36 METAPHYSICS The study of reality beyond the _________world

37 The principle of thought stating that reality or existence can only be proven through_______________

38 The principle of thought stating that reality or existence is proven through exercising ______________ or ___________

39 METAPHYSICS How would an empiricist or rationalist prove or disprove the reality of:

40 “If a painter paints a picture of an ideally beautiful man, complete to the last detail, is he any the worse painter because he cannot show that such a man could really exist?” Describe Plato’s meaning in relation to The Republic and his search for justice. What do you think? (472 d)

41 The Divided Line Theory

42 HOW DOES PLATO’S VIEW OF METAPHYSICS FIT HIS DEBATING TECHNIQUES (Socratic Method, Closed Text, Law of the Excluded Middle)?

43 In what ways do you live in “The Cave?”

44 HOW DOES THE ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE EXPLAIN PLATO’S VIEW OF METAPHYSICS?

45 Senses vs Logic Where is Plato?

46 Aristotle vs. Plato in Metaphysics Greek philosophy’s first step in proving reality was in proving existence. This was known as ONTOLOGY Plato used small examples from common life to build up his concept of “Forms” (worked from bottom up) –Where do we see this concept in the ‘socratic method’ of searching for justice? Aristotle began with the big picture, known as “Substances” and whittles this down until he reaches the smaller concepts –How would Aristotle attempted to prove ‘justice’ if he wrote The Republic?

47 Aristotle vs. Plato in Metaphysics These 2 schools of thought became the basis for Western Philosophic thought during “The Enlightenment” EMPIRICISM & RATIONALISM

48 METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS Enlightenment through the early 20 th Century 1.Monadology (Leibniz) 2.Hegelian Dialectic 3.Paradigms 4.Behaviorism

49 Hegel’s Holiday -logical opposites (2 separate functions (antithesis/thesis), but both performing functions at the same time (synthesis) by Rene Magritte


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