2What is L-D debate?A competitive type of formal debate practiced at high schools across the nationTeaches you to argue logically and persuasivelyHelps you learn to persuade others
3Debate Propositions Factual : either true or false Policy : focuses on the desirability of a course of actionValue : involve philosophical judgments; no right or wrong answerL-D debate is based on this type of proposition
4Values and Value Analysis Value : a standard we apply to judge something right or wrong, good or badMoral – just or unjust? Fair or unfair?Aesthetic – beautiful or ugly? Artistic or inartistic?Political – democratic or tyrannical? Helpful to freedom or harmful to it?
5The responsibility of the L-D debater is to: 1. Find the values within a resolution2. Apply those values3. Prove or disprove the resolutionHow does one do this?By asking the ultimate question…
6How ought things be? Ought refers to your idea of the ideal. - How you think things should be, regardless of how they actually are now.A difference between should and ought- Should suggests doing what is appropriate or fitting.- Ought refers to a moral obligation based on a sense of duty.
7Establishing Valid Arguments Facts and other forms of evidence are a crucial part of debateFacts alone cannot establish the validity of a value statementMust have facts combined with the right values
8Values commonly used in L-D: Liberty: People and governments ought to act so that each individual has the greatest possible freedom (without harming othersEquality of opportunity: Government policies should give all citizens fair access to jobs and servicesDemocracy: The people ought to have the maximum possible role in determining questions of right and wrongJustice: Value that protects other values, such as liberty and fairness
9Preparing For Battle: Writing Cases Case: Your basic position on the resolution; made up of all the arguments that you choose to present4 Steps:IntroductionDefinitions and analysis of the resolutionEstablishing valuesArguments
10You should always tell the judge and your opponent when you are moving from section to section in your case.* signpostingExample:First, we should examine key terms…Now, I will present my value…At this point, I will offer criteria…Next, I will present the first argument…
11The Introduction State your position Start with a compelling statement to support your positionMany debaters choose to begin speeches with a quotation. Should lead smoothly into the resolution, and should support your side.
12Definitions and Analysis of the Resolution Must define key terms in the resolution- Different people have different meanings for the terms; gives common ground for debateNot too broad- Honesty is being faithfulNot too restrictive- Honesty is telling the truth when your mother asks where you were Saturday night
13there must be a conflict. In order for the debateto be meaningful,there must be a conflict.
14Establishing ValuesValue Premise: establishes a standard by which one can evaluate whether or not the resolution is true; provides a starting point for an argument by summarizing the value you are using as the basis of the argument.Judge uses it as a standard for deciding the debateWhichever speaker better upholds the value premise should win the debate
15Value criteria: provide further standards of judgment for evaluating whether or not the value premise has been realized.Both the negative and affirmative sides may state value criteria.
16Arguments: your reasons for favoring your side of the resolution 1. Always make sure your arguments refer back to your value premise.Example: if you have presented the value of public safety, each of your arguments must mention public safety.
172. Always relate your evidence to your value premise. Evidence only supports your case if you relate it to your value premiseOne type of evidence that is commonly used is quotations from famous philosophers.Make certain that they actually apply to your arguments!
18Debate SkillsClash: making your arguments directly conflict with your opponent’s.A desirable goal in L-D debateClash with your opponent’s arguments by refuting them—showing how they are flawed.In refuting, you should address opponent’s arguments in the order they presented them.
19Refutation Pattern: Briefly state your opponent’s arguments Say how many responses you haveMake those responses, numbering each one as you goPattern will help keep your speeches organized and clear.
20Common Refutation Techniques: Counterexamples: Examples that go against those of your opponentExample:You are debating whether or not homeless people who beg are invading pedestrians’ privacy. Opponent points out that some beggars are alcoholics just trying to support their addiction. Your counterexample could be that some families are forced to beg in order to survive on the streets.
21Analogies: Useful in refuting arguments that are not supported by evidence. Example: Resolved: that the United States ought to value global concerns above its own national concerns.Opponent’s points: 1. The United States has the capability of helping other nations; 2. All leaders capable of helping others should do so; 3. Therefore, the U.S. should value global concerns above national concernsYour analogy: Just because you are the best student in your biology class does not mean that you have to have a study session at your house every night to bring up the grades of other students.
22Contradictions: Pointing out that your opponent presented a value that contradicted their arguments. Example: “Resolved: that communities in the United States ought to have the right to suppress pornography.” Affirmative is defending free speech. You should point out that suppressing pornography would make speech less free. This proves that the value the opponent is defending contradicts their argument.Crystallization: Choosing the most important arguments and linking them back to the values presented in the roundFocus on the key issues; tell the judge why your value is superior to your opponent’s and why you are winning each of the key issues.
25First Affirmative Constructive: 6 min Prepared entirely before the round beginsGive constructive, then wait to be cross-examined by negative sideShould have these basic elements:Introduction: 30 secDefinitions, value premise, value criteria: 1 minArguments: 4 minConclusion: 30 sec
26First Negative Constructive: 7 min Begin with a prepared constructive presentation lasting approximately 3-4 minutesShould include an introduction, a value premise and value criteria, counterdefinitions, and arguments.Devote the remainder of the speech to refuting the arguments presented in the affirmative constructiveClash with the affirmative value and arguments
27Cross-Examinations Follows each constructive The speaker who has just spoken is questionedTips:Never let them see you sweatRespond to each question thoughtfully and confidentlyKnow your case thoroughly and plan responses to anticipated questionsStick to the question asked; don’t ramble onPrepare carefully to avoid falling into traps
28The RebuttalsThe act of countering your opponent’s attacks on your arguments so you can rebuild those arguments.
29General Principles:The purpose is to bring the round into focus so that you are able to defeat your opponent’s arguments.Do not initiate new arguments; rather, extend arguments already introduced in constructives.Attempt to find a common fault in the arguments if you are running low on time.Point out dropped arguments to the judges.Highlight false assumptions and contradictions at the beginning.Begin by refuting opponent’s analysis and then return to your own case.Always crystallize: Clarify why the points you are winning are important; link crucial arguments back to your value.
30First Affirmative Rebuttal: 4 min Generally considered the most challenging speech in L-D debate. You have only 4 minutes to address 7 minutes of negative constructive.Good approach:Spend from sec. on the value clash. Tell why your value is superior.Use 1 ½ min refuting negative arguments. Mention each position stated by your opponent.Use remaining time to reestablish the strength of your case.
31Negative Rebuttal: 6 min Last chance for negative side to speak.Shut down arguments that you anticipate will be raised in second affirmative rebuttal.Good approach:Begin with value clashRefute affirmative caseReturn to defending your own caseCrystallize your arguments for the last 1 ½ to 2 minPick most important issues from your perspective, and state why you are winning them. Affirmative will be forced to address these issues—put them on the defensive.
32Second Affirmative Rebuttal: 3 min Focus on three or four issues of key importance. Don’t have to be concerned with covering all of the issues mentioned previously.Emphasize value clash first, then examine negative crystallization from affirmative perspective.
33Using Prep Time: 3 min per side Affirmative: Allocate two minutes before 1AR and one minute before 2ARNegative: Split evenly – half before 1NC and half before NR
34November/December topic Resolved: In the United States criminal justice system, truth-seeking ought to take precedence over attorney-client privilege.- Start analyzing this topic –BRING TO CLASSDefine key wordsBrainstorm aff/neg argumentsStart researching the topic.
35The End!Now you should be informed about the Basics of Lincoln-Douglas debate