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1 Poetics 335BCE Aristotle 384~322BCE Aristotle 384~322BCE.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Poetics 335BCE Aristotle 384~322BCE Aristotle 384~322BCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Poetics 335BCE Aristotle 384~322BCE Aristotle 384~322BCE

2 2  Athens 347BCE as the apprentice of Plato  Macedonia 343/335BCE the tutor of Alexander the Great porch  Athens 323BCE established his own school: Lyceum; peripatetic; Peripateticism porch  Chalcis 322BCE “to prevent the Athenians from sinning twice against philosophy”  Athens 347BCE as the apprentice of Plato  Macedonia 343/335BCE the tutor of Alexander the Great porch  Athens 323BCE established his own school: Lyceum; peripatetic; Peripateticism porch  Chalcis 322BCE “to prevent the Athenians from sinning twice against philosophy”

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4 4  Career: Scientific writings, political and ethical theory, metaphysics, Practical analysis (Poetics, Rhetoric)  Opinion: Forms are always embodied in some way. (dis-agree with Plato) “Plato is dear to me, but dearer still is the truth.”  Style: Expository and analytical (P --- ironic and dialectic)  Career: Scientific writings, political and ethical theory, metaphysics, Practical analysis (Poetics, Rhetoric)  Opinion: Forms are always embodied in some way. (dis-agree with Plato) “Plato is dear to me, but dearer still is the truth.”  Style: Expository and analytical (P --- ironic and dialectic)

5 5 Philosophy of Aristotle  Four Causes: material – formal – efficient – final  Opinion: Forms are always embodied in some way. (dis-agree with Plato) The origin of a thing determines what it is. (agree with Plato) [Greece] Aristotle Translated by S. H. Butcher  《诗学 - 诗艺》:亚理士多德、贺拉斯,罗念生、杨周翰译,人民 文学出版社, 1962 年版  《诗学》 : 亚里士多德, 陈中梅译注, 商务印书馆, 1999 年版  Four Causes: material – formal – efficient – final  Opinion: Forms are always embodied in some way. (dis-agree with Plato) The origin of a thing determines what it is. (agree with Plato) [Greece] Aristotle Translated by S. H. Butcher  《诗学 - 诗艺》:亚理士多德、贺拉斯,罗念生、杨周翰译,人民 文学出版社, 1962 年版  《诗学》 : 亚里士多德, 陈中梅译注, 商务印书馆, 1999 年版

6 6 Chapter 1~5 Three ways for imitation  1) Means Kinds of means: form, color, voice, rhythm, language, harmony  1) Means Kinds of means: form, color, voice, rhythm, language, harmony

7 7 2) Objects  ☆ The imitator represents actions.  Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type  The agents should be either good or bad. Since the line between virtue and vice is one dividing the whole of mankind.  ☆ The imitator represents actions.  Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type  The agents should be either good or bad. Since the line between virtue and vice is one dividing the whole of mankind.

8 8  This difference it is that distinguishes Tragedy and Comedy also;  The one would make its personages worse, and the other better, than the men of the present day.  This difference it is that distinguishes Tragedy and Comedy also;  The one would make its personages worse, and the other better, than the men of the present day.

9 9 3) Manners  The manners simple narration (The dithyramb) the poet everywhere appears and never conceals himself imitation (The tragedy and comedy ) he assimilation of himself to another, either by the use of voice or gesture a union of the two (The epic, other styles of poetry )  The manners simple narration (The dithyramb) the poet everywhere appears and never conceals himself imitation (The tragedy and comedy ) he assimilation of himself to another, either by the use of voice or gesture a union of the two (The epic, other styles of poetry )

10 10 4) Origins  4) Origins of poetry and human nature  Imitation is natural to man from childhood. --- Learning first by imitation.  Delight in learning. --- The sense of harmony and rhythm.  4) Origins of poetry and human nature  Imitation is natural to man from childhood. --- Learning first by imitation.  Delight in learning. --- The sense of harmony and rhythm.

11 11 Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature.  Next, there is the instinct for 'harmony' and rhythm, meters being manifestly sections of rhythm.  Persons, therefore, starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth to Poetry.  Next, there is the instinct for 'harmony' and rhythm, meters being manifestly sections of rhythm.  Persons, therefore, starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth to Poetry.

12 12 5) Compare  5) Compare the Three: Comedy-Tragedy-Epic Comedy, an imitation of men worse than the average. Epic poetry is one kind of verse and in narrative form. in its length, no fixed limit of time.  ☆ Tragedy should be within a single circuit of the sun. All the parts of an epic are included in Tragedy, but those of Tragedy are not all of them to be found in the Epic.  5) Compare the Three: Comedy-Tragedy-Epic Comedy, an imitation of men worse than the average. Epic poetry is one kind of verse and in narrative form. in its length, no fixed limit of time.  ☆ Tragedy should be within a single circuit of the sun. All the parts of an epic are included in Tragedy, but those of Tragedy are not all of them to be found in the Epic.

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17 17 6) Tragedy  The definition of Tragedy:  1/is the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself;  2/in language with pleasurable accessories each kind brought in separately in the parts of the work;  3/in a dramatic not a narrative form; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions.  The definition of Tragedy:  1/is the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself;  2/in language with pleasurable accessories each kind brought in separately in the parts of the work;  3/in a dramatic not a narrative form; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions.

18 18  ☆ The six parts of Tragedy: Means (Diction, Melody) Objects (Plot, Character, Thought) Manner (Spectacle)  ☆ The order of the six parts: Plot, Character, Thought, Diction, Melody, Spectacle  ☆ The six parts of Tragedy: Means (Diction, Melody) Objects (Plot, Character, Thought) Manner (Spectacle)  ☆ The order of the six parts: Plot, Character, Thought, Diction, Melody, Spectacle

19 19 Chapter Comparing the Epic & the Tragedy  23) forms  ① a single action, whole and complete, with a beginning, a middle, and an end.  ② History: one period; several events; no single result /// Drama: single action  ③ Homer: detaches a single portion, and admits as episodes many events  23) forms  ① a single action, whole and complete, with a beginning, a middle, and an end.  ② History: one period; several events; no single result /// Drama: single action  ③ Homer: detaches a single portion, and admits as episodes many events

20 20 24) kinds  ① kinds---simple, or complex, or 'ethical‘ (Character) or pathetic (Suffering)  ② parts--- Reversals of the Situation, Recognitions, and Scenes of Suffering  the Iliad is at once simple and 'pathetic' the Odyssey complex (for Recognition scenes run through it  ① kinds---simple, or complex, or 'ethical‘ (Character) or pathetic (Suffering)  ② parts--- Reversals of the Situation, Recognitions, and Scenes of Suffering  the Iliad is at once simple and 'pathetic' the Odyssey complex (for Recognition scenes run through it

21 21  ☆ The Poet  should say very little in propria persona, as he is no imitator when doing that.  tell a story with additions.  Use paralogism to frame lies in the right way. Bath-story in Odyssey p40  ☆ The Poet  should say very little in propria persona, as he is no imitator when doing that.  tell a story with additions.  Use paralogism to frame lies in the right way. Bath-story in Odyssey p40

22 22  ☆ A likely impossibility is preferable to an unconvincing possibility.  the poet should prefer probable impossibilities to improbable possibilities.  For instance: Hamlet  ☆ character and thought are merely obscured by a diction that is over-brilliant  ☆ A likely impossibility is preferable to an unconvincing possibility.  the poet should prefer probable impossibilities to improbable possibilities.  For instance: Hamlet  ☆ character and thought are merely obscured by a diction that is over-brilliant

23 23 25) As regards Problems and their Solutions  ⑴ imitate three objects- things as they were or are, things as they are said or thought to be, things as they ought to be.  ⑵ Two kinds of errors:  His art itself is at fault. Lack of power of expression Unrecognizable worse  The technical error. Not to know describe in incorrect ways lesser error  ⑴ imitate three objects- things as they were or are, things as they are said or thought to be, things as they ought to be.  ⑵ Two kinds of errors:  His art itself is at fault. Lack of power of expression Unrecognizable worse  The technical error. Not to know describe in incorrect ways lesser error

24 24  (3) five sources from critical objections  impossible, irrational, (no inner necessity) morally hurtful, contradictory, contrary to artistic correctness  Sophocles drew men as they ought to be;  Euripides drew men as they are.  (3) five sources from critical objections  impossible, irrational, (no inner necessity) morally hurtful, contradictory, contrary to artistic correctness  Sophocles drew men as they ought to be;  Euripides drew men as they are.

25 25 26) Tragedy is superior  ☆ Is the Tragedy a vulgar art?  No, the critic is to Interpreter overdid; the movement of ignoble people  the Tragedy has an the epic elements  the music and spectacular effects-- the most vivid of pleasures  it has vividness of impression in reading as well as in representation  the art attains its end within narrower limits  ☆ Is the Tragedy a vulgar art?  No, the critic is to Interpreter overdid; the movement of ignoble people  the Tragedy has an the epic elements  the music and spectacular effects-- the most vivid of pleasures  it has vividness of impression in reading as well as in representation  the art attains its end within narrower limits

26 26 ☆ So,  Tragedy is higher form of art, attaining the poetic effect better than the Epic.

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