Presentation on theme: "Idioms and Quotes Badger someone into doing something Method in ones madness Play into someone’s hands Put out feelers Sit on the fence Spoon-feed someone."— Presentation transcript:
Idioms and Quotes Badger someone into doing something Method in ones madness Play into someone’s hands Put out feelers Sit on the fence Spoon-feed someone Take someone for a ride Text walking “Our natures are a lot like oil, mix us with anything else and and we strive to swim on top” (Beaumont, Francis,1584-1616)
Correction and homework for this week Inuit not intuit Q-skills Listening and Speaking Grammar Modals expressing attitude Grammar extension Vocabulary skill
References Aitken, R., (2002) Teaching Tenses, ELB Publishing, UK Bonner, M., Fuchs, M., & Westheimer,(2006) Focus on Grammar: An Integrated Approach, Pearsons Longman, NY Scrivener, J.,(2009) Teaching English Grammar : What to Teach and How to Teach it, Macmillan Press, Swan, M., 2005, 3 rd ed. Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press University of Victoria : English Language Centre
Modal Verbs Prohibition, strong obligation, recommendation and no obligation
What is a modal verb? Modal verbs are helping / auxiliary verbs They can have more than one meaning A modal usually expresses a persons attitude connected to certainty or obligation, We are going to discuss modals of obligation They are important for rules and laws
Modal Verbs Modals are followed by the base form of a verb( the infinitive without to) Form subject + modal= basic verb they have no ‘s’ in the third person singular they have no past participle Negatives are always made using n’t/not Questions can be made by placing the modal verb before the subject. Mary can dance I can dance, and she can dance too. NOT She cans dance She can’t sing NOT She doesn’t can sing Can Peter dance too? NOT Does can Peter dance too?
Strong obligation Must and have to show that something is necessary not optional for example following the laws of a country, or the rules of an organization Must is the strongest and most common in writing Must and have to in questions are used to show someone that what they are doing annoys us I must study tonight. In the UK you must drive on the left. You have to finish all your assignments before the end of the month. Must you speak with your mouth full? Do you have to make so much noise ?
Have to Have to is the most common (more common in American English in British English it is have got to) it is known as a semi-modal and does not follow all the grammatical rules for modals It is useful for forming questions and negatives Past I have to study tonight. Do I have to study tonight? I don’t have to study to night. I had to study last night
Prohibition To show that something is not allowed,not permitted we use “must not”= mustn't It has an opposite meaning to must Students must not copy their work from the internet. It is illegal. People mustn't smoke. It has no question form It has no past form. More common in writing.
Can’t is also used for prohibition They can’t say anything false You can’t come in here
Weak obligation or recommendation You use should to give advice and opinions Should is weaker than must and have to Amanda should go to the doctor = that we think it is a good idea for Amanda to visit the doctor
Ought to Ought to has similar meaning to should. We use ought to to say what we consider to be sensible, necessary or correct thing to do. He ought to lose weight. It is different because it takes a to infinitive rather than the bare infinitive It has no past tense and we make the negative using not Teachers ought not to swear in front of the children American English doesn’t use ought in the negative it uses shouldn’t
No Obligation Don’t have to indicates a lack of obligation Advertisers don’t have to send ads for approval. ( you can if you want but you don’t have to) You don’t have to use this door. ( you can if you want to but you don’t have to)
14 What kind of verbs are modal verbs? What kind of attitudes do they express? What is an example of a modal verb that expresses prohibition? Is ‘must/ must not’ more common in writing or speaking? Why is ‘ought’ different? Is ‘have' a modal verb?
Look at the two sentences: It was raining. I took my umbrella. We can join these sentences together by using a conjunction : and, but, so, or. Which is the best conjunction to join this sentence
It was raining, so I took my umbrella with me. The two sentences are joined together with the Conjunction “so” This is a coordinating conjunction. The result is a longer sentence made up of two independent clauses
ConjunctionFunctionExample and Joins two similar ideasHe lives in Riyadh and studies at LSE. but Joins two contrasting ideas Fawzia is Saudi, but Tung Chi is Chinese. or Joins two alternative ideas, gives a choice I could cook some supper,or we could order some pizza. so Shows that the second idea is the result of the first She was sick, so she went to the doctor.
Extra information These conjunctions are also used nor = joining two negative sentences for = because yet = but
Things to remember Three things to remember when using coordinating conjunctions 1.Coordinating conjunctions join independent clauses. Each clause must be “a complete thought” which could be a sentence on its own. With coordinating conjunctions, put the conjunction in the middle. You see some sentences starting with ‘but’ or ‘and’, but this is usually wrong, so it is best to avoid it. With coordinating conjunctions, use a comma unless both clauses are very short.
Complete the sentences by choosing the best coordinating conjunction for each space- 1. Bill was cold,________ he put on a coat. 2. Maria tried to read a novel in French,___________ it was too difficult. 3. To get from Vancouver to Victoria, you can fly, _____you can ride the ferry. 4. I bought a bottle of sparkling juice,________ we drank it together. 5. The waiter was not very nice,________ the food was delicious.
6. I went to buy a Quran CD,_____ the shop didn't have it. 7. Anna needed some money,____ she took a part-time job. 8. There's so much rain lately! Maybe it's because of El Nino, ______maybe it's just coincidence. 9. Julie has a drum,_____she plays it really well.
23 10. The lecture was cancelled,_____ we went to a restaurant instead.
Affixes We add things to the beginning or the end of a word to change its meaning or grammatical status
Suffixes The ending of a word will often show what part of speech the word has become. For example: –tion at the end of authorization tells us that the word is likely to be a noun; -s at the end of hides tells us that this is either the third person singular of the verb hide or the plural of the noun hide.
Advertisements What things have you bought because of an advertisement? Has an advertisement ever helped you in some way? What kind of ad was it? How did it help you? Are there any ads that you really like? Why do you like them? What are some things you would never buy based on an ad?
Does advertising help or harm us? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jz61a DH8_E
Memory recall after learning ‘your boss has a bigger vocabulary than you have. That’s one good reason why he’s your boss. ( Dr Wilfred funk and Dr Norman Lewis). A simple formula to keep your memory sharp 28
29 1.You must repeat something five times for it to stay in your long-term memory Your repetitions should be spaced out roughly according to the following formula: First repetition- after one hour Second repetition- after one day Third repetition – after one week Fourth repetition- after one month Fifth repetition- after six months
How can advertisers change our behaviour? What are some of the techniques that advertisers use to influence consumers? What are the different types of products that may be marketed with those techniques? 31
Could used in the past We use could to talk about the past. She could read when she was four. My grandmother could sing like an angel. My last car could do 200kmp. In those days everybody could find a job. 32
Review Present Perfect When is present perfect used? What is its form? 33
34 Present perfect is used to show that an action started in the past and is still happening ( up to now) Form: have/ has + past participle Ex. I have lived in Riyadh for 5 years. I am still living in Riyadh
Past Perfect/ Simple Past The smart board had fallen down before I arrived at class. Which event happened first? The smart board falling or the arriving to class? 35
36 The smart board falling 1 st event Arriving to class is the 2 nd event Two past events, one happened before the other. Past perfect = 1 st event Simple past= 2 nd event
37 She had called her boss before she went home. past perfectsimple past had calledwent XXNow 1 st 2 nd Had called 1 st went home 2 nd
38 They had made many mistakes before they did it right. past perfectsimple past had madedid XXNow 1 st 2 nd mistakes = 1 st event right = 2 nd event
39 You had left before the meeting started. past perfectsimple past had leftstarted XXNow __X____________X______Now past perfectsimple past had called 1 st event went 2 nd event had made 1 st eventdid 2 nd event had left 1 st event started 2 nd event
40 the past perfect tense is also used with when, by the time, and until He had been at work for hours when we called him. The had already eaten dinner by the time I got home. They hadn’t heard anything about it until they read twitter this morning.