Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY. Meaning of ‘Theory’ and Related Concepts Definition of Theory A set of propositions (statements/opinions), suppositions.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY. Meaning of ‘Theory’ and Related Concepts Definition of Theory A set of propositions (statements/opinions), suppositions."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

2 Meaning of ‘Theory’ and Related Concepts Definition of Theory A set of propositions (statements/opinions), suppositions (assumptions/hypotheses) or constructs (ideas) that purport to explain, describe and predict a reality. It is an abstraction of a reality. 5/1/20152UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

3 Meaning of ‘Theory’ and Related Concepts Some Related Concepts/Terms Theory Testing: Subjecting a theory (hypothesis, etc) to empirical scrutiny Induction: A scientific approach that is used to formulate theories based on an examination of available evidence (facts). Deduction: The production of facts (empirical evidence) to prove a general law (theory) 5/1/20153UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

4 Meaning of ‘Theory’ and Related Concepts Some Related Concepts/Terms Falsification: Research approach that “rejects the idea that theories are true and instead sees them as speculative or provisional truths that stand for as long as they are not disproven” (Allmendinger, 2002). Karl Popper and other philosophers: no (theory) is beyond question and therefore good theories are those that are “outlandish [unfamiliar] and provocative in order to test and falsify current theories” (Allmendinger, 2002). 5/1/20154UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

5 Meaning of ‘Theory’ and Related Concepts Some Related Concepts/Terms Paradigm: a broad world view that underlies the theories and (scientific) methodologies employed in a particular discipline. It’s based on current body of knowledge within that discipline or subject 5/1/20155UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

6 Meaning of ‘Theory’ and Related Concepts Some Related Concepts/Terms A Paradigm Shift A radical abandonment of a long-established worldview (paradigm) following the emergence of a new worldview that is found to do a better job than the old worldview. Based on the ideas of Thomas Kuhn (1970) who believed that the production of scientific knowledge is all about revolutions rather than falsifications. 5/1/20156UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

7 Classification of Theories How Should We Classify Theories? Theories take different forms and are propounded for varying purposes; hence, no standard approach to classifying them. We will classify them in 2 main ways: Function-based Classification Hierarchy-based Classification 5/1/20157UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

8 Classification of Theories Function-Based Classification Classification based on what theories are meant to do; i.e. they perform. In this respect, theories can be classified as: Normative Theories: Broad theories that tell us how the world ought to be E.g., the various theories of planning—deal with how we ought to do planning 5/1/20158UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

9 Classification of Theories Function-Based Classification Prescriptive Theories: More specific (substantive) theories that deal with the means (method[s]) to do something E.g. the various theories in planning—deal with specific aspects of planning 5/1/20159UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

10 Classification of Theories Function-Based Classification Empirical (Explanatory) Theories: Explain reality by focusing on causal relationships— b/n dependent and independent variables They ask the questions ‘what is’ and ‘why’ E.g. the hypothesis that paved access roads increases the value of land and housing 5/1/201510UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

11 Classification of Theories Function-Based Classification Models: simple representations (mathematical models, pictures, diagrams, etc) of reality 5/1/201511UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

12 Classification of Theories Hierarchy-Based Classification Theories can be placed under one or another of Various levels of formulation (hierarchical categories): Field Theories: the lowest level of theory; it is based on one case study and not replicated elsewhere. Small Theories: hypotheses established in one case study and tested in not more than three other places (contexts) 5/1/201512UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

13 Classification of Theories Hierarchy-Based Classification Middle-Level Theories: tested but with limited assumption (it is proven at various levels). Most planning theories are at this level General Theories: theories that have moved to a higher level of rigorous analysis than the above ones Universal Laws: supposed to be applicable everywhere at anytime 5/1/201513UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

14 Meaning and Relevance of Planning Theory Discussion Questions What Role(s) do Theories Play in the Planning Profession? What do you understand by ‘Planning Theory’? 5/1/201514UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY Practice  Superstructure Theory  Substructure

15 Types of Planning Theories Two main categories based on ideas of Faludi (1973) and others: Procedural Planning Theories a.k.a. Theories of Planning Substantive Planning Theories a.k.a. Theories in Planning 5/1/201515UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

16 Types of Planning Theories What do you understand by Procedural Planning Theories (Theories of Planning)? Suggest how planning ought to be carried out Five main types: Synoptic (Rational) Planning Incremental Planning (Incrementalism) Transactive Planning Advocacy Planning Radical Planning To be discussed next week 5/1/201516UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY

17 Types of Planning Theories What do you understand by Substantive Planning Theories (Theories in Planning)? Specific (substantive) theories that deal with the means (method[s]) to do planning. Mostly borrowed from other disciplines and applied in various aspects of planning Examples: the gravity model and other spatial interaction models; cost-benefit analysis; etc 5/1/201517UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY


Download ppt "UNIT 3: MEANING OF PLANNING THEORY. Meaning of ‘Theory’ and Related Concepts Definition of Theory A set of propositions (statements/opinions), suppositions."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google