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The Self, Identity, and Values Chapter 3: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "The Self, Identity, and Values Chapter 3: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Self, Identity, and Values Chapter 3: Human Adjustment John W. Santrock McGraw-Hill © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-2 Chapter Outline The Self Identity Values Religion

3 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-3 THE SELF Self-Concept Self-Esteem

4 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-4 Self-Concept  Self-concept consists of our thoughts and feelings about our own characteristics  Rogers argues that congruence between real self and ideal self results in adjustment Self-concept = individual’s perception of his or her abilities, personality, and other attributes

5 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-5 Self-Discrepancy  E. Tory Higgins identified 3 domains of self: – Actual self - your representation of attributes you believe or you actually possess – Ideal self - your representation of attributes that ideally you would like to possess – Ought self - your representation of attributes you believe you should possess

6 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-6 Self-Discrepancy Theory  Self-discrepancy theory - problems occur when representations from different viewpoints or from different domains are inconsistent, or discrepant – Discrepancies between actual and ideal selves create dejection-relation emotions (depression) – Discrepancies between actual self and ought self create agitated emotions (anxiety)

7 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-7 Figure 3.1 The Relation of Discrepancies in Actual, Ideal, and Ought Selves to Depression and Anxiety

8 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-8 Possible Selves  Possible selves - conceptions of what we might become, including what we would like to become and what we are afraid of becoming – Include hoped-for and dreaded selves – Serve role in self-evaluation

9 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-9 Possible Selves  Individualistic cultures - possible selves that reflect distinctiveness of individual  Collectivist cultures - possible selves that strengthen the groups to which they belong

10 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Self-Esteem  People have both a general level of self-esteem and fluctuating degrees of self-esteem related to specific domains of life Self-esteem = overall evaluation of one’s self-worth or self-image

11 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Examples of Domains of Life – academic competence – work competence – social or relationship competence – sexuality – athletic competence – physical attractiveness

12 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Self-Esteem  There is controversy about whether self-esteem varies according to the age of the individual  Correlations between self-esteem and: – school performance – job performance – initiative – happiness

13 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Increasing Self-Esteem 1. Identify your sources of self-esteem and what is causing low self-esteem 2. Face a problem and try to cope with it 3. Seek emotional support 4. Take responsibility for your self-esteem 5. Look for opportunities to achieve 6. Explore resources to improve your self- understanding

14 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Narcissism  Narcissism - self-centered and self-concerned approach when dealing with others  Narcissists are: – excessively self-centered and self-congratulatory – unaware of their actual selves and how others perceive them

15 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved IDENTITY Erikson’s View The Four Statuses of Identity Developmental Changes Ethnic Identity Gender and Identity

16 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Erikson's View  Identity versus identity confusion - stage during adolescence and emerging adulthood when individuals are faced with deciding who they are and where they are going in life Identity = a sense of integration of self in which different parts come together in a unified whole

17 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Erikson’s View  Youths enter a psychosocial moratorium during which they experiment with personalities and roles as they search for an identity  Psychological moratorium - gap between childhood security and adult autonomy – In the United States, vocational identity is especially important

18 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Four Statuses of Identity  James Marcia’s classification based on extent of their crisis and commitment – Crisis - period of identity development during which individual is choosing among meaningful alternatives – Commitment - personal investment in an identity

19 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Four Statuses of Identity  Marcia proposed four identity statuses: – identity diffusion - has not yet experienced identity crisis and has not made any commitment – identity foreclosure - has made a commitment but has not experienced an identity crisis – identity moratorium - experiencing identity crisis but has not made commitment to an identity – identity achievement - has undergone identity crisis and made a commitment

20 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 3.3 Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity

21 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Developmental Changes  Some experts believe the main identity changes take place in late adolescence or emerging adulthood, rather than in early adolescence  College upperclassmen are more likely to be identity achieved than are freshmen or high school students, although many college students are still wrestling with ideological commitments  Individuals often follow “moratorium-achievement- moratorium-achievement” cycles

22 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Ethnic Identity  Ethnic identity - enduring aspect of self that includes: – sense of membership in ethnic group – attitudes and feelings related to membership  During adolescence and emerging adulthood ethnic minority individuals consciously confront their ethnic identity  Many ethnic minority individuals have a bicultural identity

23 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Ethnic Identity  Helms’ model of ethnic identity development : – Stage 1 - pre-encounter (prefer dominant society’s values) – Stage 2 - encounter (realize they will never belong to mainstream) – Stage 3 - immersion/emersion (immerse themselves in minority culture / experience discontent) – Stage 4 - internalization/commitment (integrate personal and culture identity / enact identity)

24 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Gender and Identity  Erikson believed that males have a stronger vocational identity, females a stronger social identity  Gender differences appear to be disappearing

25 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved VALUES Exploring Values College Students’ Values Meaning in Life Sociocultural Perspectives on Values

26 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Exploring Values  Value conflict - clash between values that encourage opposing actions  Ethnic minority individuals can have value conflict between their values and values of mainstream culture Values = standards we apply to determine the worth of things, ideas, or events

27 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Adjustment Strategies for Clarifying Your Values 1. Imagine your own funeral - what will people say? 2. If you had unlimited time and resources, what would you do? 3. Review your most important values. 4. How do your values relate to physical, social, mental, and spiritual needs?

28 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved College Students’ Values  Over the past two decades, U.S. college students have shown an increased concern for personal well-being and a decreased concern for the well-being of others  An increasing number of students are showing an interest in volunteer or community service work

29 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved College Students’ Values  Service learning - form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community  Participation in service learning is related to: – higher grades – increased goal setting – higher self-esteem

30 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Meaning in Life  Viktor Frankl believes that examining the finiteness of our existence leads to exploration of meaning in life  Baumeister argues that a quest for a meaningful life involves four main needs: – need for purpose – need for values – need for sense of efficacy – need for self-worth

31 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sociocultural Perspectives on Values  Some critics argue that Americans are too concerned with self-fulfillment and personal identity  Zen Buddhism emphasizes living in the present moment by focusing on the task at hand Morita therapy = Zen Buddhist therapy emphasizing accepting feelings, knowing one’s purposes, and doing what needs to be done

32 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved RELIGION The Scope of Religion in People’s Lives Religion and Health Religious Coping

33 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Scope of Religion in People’s Lives  Religion plays important role in the lives of many people around the world  Majority of Americans say they are religious – Females show a stronger interest in religion than males – Americans are becoming less committed to a particular religious denomination and show a declining faith in mainstream religious organizations

34 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Figure 3.5 Level of Spirituality

35 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Religion and Health  Individuals in religious mainstream generally enjoy a positive or neutral link between religion and physical health  Religious thoughts can play role in maintaining hope and stimulating motivation in recovery from an illness or disease

36 McGraw-Hill ©2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Religious Coping  Religion helps some people cope more effectively with stress  Positive religious coping strategies include: – expression of a sense of spirituality – secure relationship with God – belief that there is meaning to be found in life – sense of spiritual connectedness with others


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