2Moral Absolutism“I do, what I do, because, it’s the right thing to do.” ~ Jimmy CarterSentimentalism“What is moral is what you feel good after, and what is immoral is what you feel bad after.” ~ Ernest HemmingwayPragmatism“Truth is defined as whatever it is useful to believe.” ~ William JamesFaith“ For me, as for others, faith provided the meaning of life and the possibility of living”. ~ Leo Tolstoy
3EthicsEthics is the branch of philosophy that studies questions about right and good.Moral theories provide a frame work for answering such questions and for evaluating human action.
4Are There Ethical Facts It is a fact that the Rocky Mountains are located in North America.Are there similar sorts of facts in ethics?If so, why do so many people disagree about what is right and wrong.
5Ethical SkepticismThis view claims that moral knowledge is not possible.This view claims that we cannot, as rational human beings, determine what is objectively right or wrong.
6Relativism Species Relativism Descriptive Relativism Cultural RelativismReligious RelativismIndividual Relativism
7Species RelativismThis view claims that ethics is relative to our species, or relative to humanity as a whole.
8Descriptive Relativism Descriptive Relativism says that as a matter of empirical fact, different cultures have different beliefs about what is morally right and what is morally wrong.This seems to be true.
9Cultural RelativismThis view claims that ethics is determined by each culture. What is right and wrong ought to be determined by culture.
10Religious Relativism Morality is determined by God or religion. This view is what many people subscribe to, however with more than 10,000 different religions which one is the right one?
11Individual Relativism (Subjectivism) This view claims that each person ought to determine what is ethical for themselves.As long as you do what you think is right, then you have acted correctly.
16Minimum Training Needed Job NameWhat it PaysMinimum Training NeededNew Jobsby 20141. Retail Salesperson$22,880Short-term on-the-job training736,0002. Registered Nurse$55,680Associate degree703,0003. Postsecondary Teacher$62,032Doctoral degree524,0004. Customer Service Rep$29,350Moderate-term on-the-job training471,0005. Janitor/Cleaner (NOT maids/housekeeping)$20,800440,0006. Waiter/Waitress$15,980376,0007. Combination Food Preparation & Serving Worker$17,850367,0008. Home Health Aide$19,200350,0009. Nursing Aid, Orderly, Attendant$21,890Postsecondary vocational award325,00010. General & Operations Manager$93,580Bachelor's degree plus work308,000
17Minimum Training Needed Job NameWhat it PaysMinimum Training NeededNew Jobsby 20141. Retail Salesperson$22,880Short-term on-the-job training736,0002. Registered Nurse$55,680Associate degree703,0003. Postsecondary Teacher$62,032Doctoral degree524,0004. Customer Service Rep$29,350Moderate-term on-the-job training471,0005. Janitor/Cleaner (NOT maids/housekeeping)$20,800440,0006. Waiter/Waitress$15,980376,0007. Combination Food Preparation & Serving Worker$17,850367,0008. Home Health Aide$19,200350,0009. Nursing Aid, Orderly, Attendant$21,890Postsecondary vocational award325,00010. General & Operations Manager$93,580Bachelor's degree plus work308,00011. Personal and Home Care Aide$17,560287,00012. Elementary School Teacher$46,350Bachelor's degree265,00013. Accountant and Auditor$57,160264,00014. Office Clerk$24,440263,00015. Hand laborer & freight, stock & material mover$22,190248,00016. Receptionist and Information Clerk$22,900246,00017. Landscaping and Groundskeeping Worker$22,260230,00018. Truck Driver, Heavy and Tractor Trailer$34,920223,00019. Computer Applications Software Engineer$78,570222,00020. Maintenance and Repair Worker$32,290202,00021. Medical Assistant$25,86022. Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant$37,350192,00023. Sales Representative, Wholesale & Manufacturing$54,500187,000
19Intrinsic ValueIntrinsic value is value that a thing has in and of its self.Often valuable as an ends.Examples:Happiness, Love, Honor, Family, Health, and Freedom
20Extrinsic or Instrumental Value Something has extrinsic if it is valuable as a means to acquiring or attaining something we value in virtue of itself.For example money has little or no intrinsic value, it’s just bits of paper or metal, but it has great extrinsic value in that it can used to acquire other items which we do value.
21Moral and Non Moral value Moral evaluation is restricted to moral agents.One must be a rational agent in order for one to evaluate the morality of your actionsThese beings may still have moral worth.
22Non Moral ValueObjects, experiences, and states of affairs can all have value. They may have intrinsic or extrinsic value, but it is not moral value.Some ethical theories evaluate actions in terms of how well they promote non moral value.
23Goals of a Moral Theory Theoretical Goals Explains why something is moral.Practical GoalsProcedures for evaluating morality of action.
24Relation of Moral principles to Theory Moral principles often encompass an expression of both theoretical and practical goals.Example: “Act only on that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”- Immanuel Kant
25Structure of Moral Theory Theory of RightTheories which focus upon right and wrong action.Theory of ValueMoral ValueNon Moral Value
26Basic Moral Concepts Deontological concepts The prefix “deon” comes from the Greek and means duty.Normative in nature- what we ought to do.Obligatory ActionsProhibited ActionsOptional Actions
27Obligatory Actions Actions that one ought to do. Actions we have a duty to perform.They are required of us.They are the “right” thing to do.Failure to perform them means we have acted incorrectly, wrongly or immorally.
28Prohibited Actions Actions that one ought not do. Actions we have a duty not to perform.It is required of us to refrain from performing them.They are the “wrong” thing to do.To perform them means we have acted incorrectly, wrongly or immorally.
29Optional Actions Actions that are neither obligatory nor wrong. We are not required to perform themWe are not required to refrain from performing themSuch actions are neutral
35Kantian Moral TheoryAccording to Kant our moral duty is knowable by means of our rationality. Our rationality allows human beings to be conscious of rules of behavior, which he considers to be both Universal and Necessary.
36Categorical Imperative Categorical Imperative- It commands certain conduct immediately.Categorical- it applies instantly to all rational beingsImperative- a principle on which we ought to act"Act only on that maxim whereby thou canst at the same time will that it should become a universal law".
37A Rule of LogicLying, Cheating, Stealing and Killing are all wrong for Kant.However they are wrong, not based upon the consequences, but because according to Kant, they violate a rule of logic.For Example, if we all lied, all the time, then there would be no truth in the world. As such, truth would be meaningless- Logically, it would not exist- as a consequence… hard to avoid speaking in Terms of consequences.
38Kant thinks that certain moral rules apply to everyone all the time Kant thinks that certain moral rules apply to everyone all the time. A rule such as lying is wrong, applies to everyone, and therefore morality commands that we never lie no matter what situation we find ourselves in. The beneficial consequences of our action do not justify any action that violates the categorical imperative.
39Plato B.C.Plato, the student of Socrates, founded the first University in the year 387- called the Academy.Science and knowledge were the chief goals of study.The mind was trained to cut thru rhetoric.
40Division of the SoulAccording to Plato the soul is divided into three parts.Tripartite conception of the soul.ReasonSpiritAppetite
41ReasonReason guides us rationally towards reasonable goals
42SpiritSpirit gives us the ability to comply with reason, to be brave and follow thru with our goals
43AppetiteThe appetitive side of our soul drives our impulses and desires.Reason, according to Plato, must keep the desires in check.Allowing our passions to make decision will lead to chaos and ruin.
44Plato and ignorance Ignorance leads to evil. Plato claims that no one knowingly does wrong.Akrasia- or weakness of the will, does not exist.People simply do not understand the harm they are doing by performing certain actions.
45Teleological Theories Focus on the consequences of actions.Right actions are equated with those that produce things of value.
46UtilitarianismUtilitarianism- an act is good if it maximizes the greatest amount of good.
48Bentham claims that:"Nature has placed mankind under to sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as determine what we shall do"
49Principle of UtilityBy the principle of utility he means, "that principle which approves and disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish happiness".
50Hedonic Calculus Acts of pleasure- consider Intensity Duration CertaintyPropinquity- nearnessConsequences-Fecundity- the chances that it will be followed by more of the same, purity- the chances that the pleasure will not be followed by painExtent- the number of people it affects
52Quality over Quantity"It is better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied...It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied."
53Mill Claims:Mill claims that the Hedonic calculus is impossible because the nature of pain and pleasure are such that no meaningful standard can be established to weigh one pleasure against one pain.He thinks that QUALITY pleasures will lead to a greater quantity of pleasure.
54Act utilitarianism Same as “utilitarianism” An act is right if and only if no other act available to the moral agent maximizes utility more than the act decided upon.
55Rule utilitarianism-An act is right if and only if it falls under a correct moral rule.So not only must the act have good consequences it must not violate any moral rules.Rules are justified in terms of the social utility that results in the long term by obeying them.
56Not Egoism"The happiness which forms the utilitarian standard of what is right conduct, is not the agents own happiness, but that of all concerned..." In this way, the rightness or wrongness of an act is not based upon the consequences of pain and pleasure for yourself, but also those consequences for others.
57Ethical Egoism Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Ethical Egoism- each person ought to pursue his self interest exclusivelyPsychological Egoism- each person does pursue his own self-interest exclusively
58Ethical HedonismEpicures ( BC) claimed that the right action is the one that leads to the most pleasure for the individual. Yet instead of seeking out pleasure, Epicures says that we should try to avoid pleasure that way we will not feel too bad when we are without them. He proposes a minimalist philosophy where we seek only that which we need to survive.
59J.J.C. Smart Is a modern day hedonist. He proposes and interesting example. Imagine that we could all be plugged into a machine that can stimulate the pleasure centers in our mind. All we have to do is push a button and we will experience tremendous pleasure.
60Life of a button pusher.If pleasure is the chief goal of life, then what do we say about the life of a button pusher- one that sits back in his easy chair and pushes a button all day long. Further imagine that our society has progressed to a point technologically where we don't have to work, so all of the button pusher are not going to starve to death and our civilization is not going to be destroyed. Would such a way of life be laudable? Would it be worthy of pursuit?
61StoicismStoics would seek hardship so that they could train themselves to remain untroubled by pain and hardship.They claimed that the universe was governed by natural law, that there was a purpose and reason for all things.
62Stoicism continuedWhatever happens is the inevitable outcome of the logic of the universe.Whatever happens, happens with a reason and is therefore for the best.Given that you cannot control your fate, but you can control your attitude, remain emotionally uninvolved in your fate, and your life will be untroubled.
63Arthur SchopenhauerHeld that the world is structured according to will, that nothing can bring meaning to our existence.
64Life is negativeSchopenhauer argues that the nature of human existence is such that it is impossible to experience to have positive experience.He claims that life is pointless because our choices of ends or goals are entirely arbitrary.
65Can’t fulfill our desires He claims that what we consider good is simply things that are those things that aid in the satisfaction of our will and those things that are bad are those which get in the way of our satisfaction of our will.He says that it is impossible for our desires to be fulfilled because the fulfillment is transitory- the moment our appetite is sated another desire appears and we are left with nothing.
66Desire is NegativeThat is why he claims that desire is something negative.Schopenhauer’s main point is that nothing can really ease our suffering in this existence except death.
67Leo Tolstoy "Confessions" Faith vs.. ReasonThe notion that faith is irrational has long been pervasive in philosophy. The dichotomy between faith and reason dates back to antiquity and was taken for granted by medieval thinkers such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas.
68Rationality leads to nothing He says, "philosophical knowledge denies nothing but simply replies that is cannot solve the question, and that as far as it is concerned any resolution remains infinite. Having understood this, I realized that it was impossible to search for an answer to my questions in rational knowledge; … rational knowledge had led me to recognize that life is meaningless. My life came to a halt and I wanted to kill myself.
69Faith Gives PurposeAs I looked around at people, at humanity as a whole, I saw that they lived and affirmed that they knew the meaning of life. I looked at myself, I had lived as long as I knew the meaning of life. For me, as for others, faith provided the meaning of life and the possibility of living."
70Friedrich Nietzsche "What is Noble" Slave morality vs. Master moralityThe weak hold the Slave MoralityClaims all are equal, all deserve fairness.The powerful hold the master morality.A Morality of nobility where cunning and pride are held in highest regard. Denies equality.Nietzsche claims that the wool has been pulled over our eyes, equality and fairness are a joke
71Jean-Paul Sartre "Existentialism and Humanism" 1) existence comes before essence.2) Man is free- that is he posses free will and as such is necessarily free3) Each man determines his own morality.
73Prima Facie Duty Prima Facie duty vs. absolute duty A prima facie duty is a conditional duty. It may be overridden by a duty of greater importance. Prima Facie duties are not static. This means that one may out weight another in one situation and the same two duties might switch positions given other circumstances. We know which one takes precedent by intuition- we just know.
74Not Quite Utilitarianism Example:Keeping a promiseUtilitarian, act utilitarian, keep the promise if it produces beneficial consequencesKeep the promise, because you have a moral duty to keep them promise, unless a greater duty comes into conflict with keeping your promise.
75SentimentalismThe Notion that our sentiments or feels can be used to determine morality.Very similar to intuitionism.David Hume is often viewed as an ethical sentimentalist this is very similar to W.D. Ross.
77EudaimoniaAristotle argues that happiness is the goal of life. Happiness, Greek: eudaimonia, means human flourishing, or living well or doing well.
78Happiness and Function Human happiness if tied to human function. Aristotle feels that we will be happy if we are all fulfilling our function. Further he thinks that everything has a function. The function of something is whatever makes that thing good. Something is good according to Aristotle if it fulfills its function. A good knife is one that cuts well.
79Function of a personWhat is a good person? Aristotle says that the function of man is rationality . Therefore a good man is one that is rational. A rational man is controlled by reason in all things.
80Reason as our guideTo be happy we must be “acting in accordance with right reason.” The rational part of the soul must be in control of our appetites.
81Golden Mean.It is for this reason that Aristotle discusses the golden mean. The golden mean is the balance between excess and deficiency.Foolhardy Courage CowardiceGluttony Temperance StarvationGreed Ambition SlothIndulgence Temperance Insensibility
82Natural Rights Theorist Thomas HobbesJohn LockeJean Jacques Rousseau
84State of NatureMankind was born into the state of nature. Life in the state of nature is "short nasty and brutish".
85State of Nature Continued There are no arts or letters only a war of all against all. In this state men all have an equal right to everything. Right is equal to freedom, the freedom, to do what he would, and against whom he thought fit, and to possess, use and enjoy all that he would or could get.
87Two Laws of NatureHobbes says that in the State of Nature mankind knows by reason two laws of nature, they are 1)"seek peace and follow it" and 2), "be willing to lay down his right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow against himself."“Golden Rule”
88Form a Government The best way to protect your RIGHT to life. All people give up our rights, to the king.King determines morality.NO IMMORAL LAWS!
90Kinder, Gentler state of Nature Locke’s conception of the state of nature differs from Hobbes. He says that it is , "Men living together according to reason, without a common superior on Earth with authority to judge between them is properly the state of nature".
91John Locke: 3 Natural Rights Natural rights are akin to human rights.LIFELIBERTYPROPERTY
93True State of NatureRousseau claims that both Hobbes and Locke mischaracterize the state of nature.Natural ManCivil Man
94Natural ManNatural man is motivated by love of self, only cares about self preservation. Natural man is not motivated by greed or love of material goods.
95Civil ManMankind moves from the state of nature to civilization once we move from self preservation towards the goal of acquiring property and wealth. At this point mankind becomes motivated by greed and corrupted by envy.
96Mill’s Harm PrincipleThe Harm Principle : ...the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.