2 Exercise 1. Warm-up. Page 157Correct the errors in verb forms. 1. She can saw it. 2. She can to see it. 3. She cans see it. 4. She can sees it. 5. Can pass you the rice, please? 6. Do you can see it? 7.They don’t can go there. 8. They aren’t able pay their rent.
3 Answers- Exercise 1, p. 157.1.-4. She can see it. 5. Can you pass the rice, please? 6. Can you see it? 7. They can’t go there. 8. They aren’t able to pay their rent.
4 Basic Modal Introduction Modal auxiliaries generally express speakers’ attitudes. For example, modals can express that a speaker feels something is necessary, advisable, permissible, possible, or probable; and, in addition, they can convey the strength of those attitudes. Each modal has more than one meaning or use.
5 Modal auxiliaries in English ought tomighthad bettercanmaycouldwouldshouldwillshallmust
6 Modal Auxiliaries can do it. could do it. had better do it. may do it. might do it.must do itought to do it.shall do it.should do it.will do it.would do it.+IYouHeSheItWeThey
7 Modals do not take a final -s, even when the subject is she, he, or it Modals do not take a final -s, even when the subject is she, he, or it. correct : She can do it. incorrect : She cans do it. Modals are followed immediately by the simple form of a verb. incorrect : She can to do it. / She can does it. / She can did it. The only exception is ought, which is followed by an infinitive (to + the simple form of a verb). correct : He ought to go to the meeting.
8 Phrasal ModalsPhrasal modals are common expressions whose meanings are similar to those of some of the modal auxiliaries. For example: be able to is similar to can; be going to is similar to will. An infinitive (to + the simple form of a verb) is used in these similar expressions.be able to do it be going to do it be supposed to do it have to do it have got to do it
9 Exercise 2. Warm-up. p.158Complete the requests with I or you . Which sentences have essentially the same meaning? 1. Could _____see that book? Thanks. 2. Could _____hand me that book? Thanks. 3. May _____see that book? Thanks. 4. Can _____hand me that book? Thanks. 5. Can _____see that book? Thanks. 6. Would _____ hand me that book? Thanks. 7. Will ____please hand me that book? Thanks.
10 Answers/Exercise 2. Warm-up. p.158 1. Could I see that book? Thanks. 2. Could you hand me that book? Thanks. 3. May I see that book? Thanks. 4. Can you hand me that book? Thanks. 5. Can I see that book? Thanks. 6. Would you hand me that book? Thanks. 7. Will you please hand me that book? Thanks.
11 Polite Requests with “I” as the Subject May I borrow your pen (please)? Could I (please) borrow your pen? May I and could I are used to request permission. They are equally polite, but may I sounds more formal. Might is also possible: Might I borrow your pen? Might I is quite formal and polite; it is used much less frequently than may I or could I. NOTE : In a polite request, could has a present or future meaning, not a past meaning.
12 TYPICAL RESPONSES Certainly. Yes, certainly. Of course. Yes, of course TYPICAL RESPONSES Certainly. Yes, certainly. Of course. Yes, of course. informal : Sure. Often the response to a polite request is an action, such as a nod or shake of the head, or a simple “uh-huh,” meaning “yes.”
13 Polite Requests with “You” as the Subject Would you pass the salt (please)? Will you (please) pass the salt? The meaning of would you and will you in a polite request is the same. Would you is more common and is often considered more polite. The degree of politeness, however, is often determined by the speaker's tone of voice.
14 Could you pass the salt (please) Could you pass the salt (please)? Basically, could you and would you have the same meaning. The difference is slight. Would you = Do you want to do this please? Could you = Do you want to do this please, and is it possible for you to do this? Could you and would you are equally polite.
15 Can you (please) pass the salt. Can you is often used informally Can you (please) pass the salt? Can you is often used informally. It usually sounds a little less polite than could you or would you. Typical responses Yes, I'd (1 would) be happy to / be glad to. Certainly. informal : Sure. A person usually responds in the affirmative to a polite request. If a negative response is necessary, a person might begin by saying, “I’d like to, but ” (e.g., “I’d like to pass the salt, but 1 can’t reach it.”). incorrect : May you pass the salt? May is used only with 1 or we in polite requests.
16 Exercise 4. Warm-up/p.160In each dialogue, choose the speaker (A or B) who is going to turn down the heat.1. A: Would you mind turning down the heat?B: No, not at all.2. A: Would you mind if I turned down the heat?(Answers 1. B / 2. A)
17 Polite Requests with Would You Mind Asking Permission Would you mind if 1 closed the window? Would you mind I f 1 used the phone? Typical Responses No, not at all. No, of course not. No, that would be fine. Notice: Would you mind if 1 is followed by the simple past.
18 Sometimes, in informal spoken English, the simple present is used: Would you mind if I close the window? Note : The simple past does not refer to past time after would you mind ; it refers to present or future time.
19 The meaning in : May 1 close the window The meaning in : May 1 close the window? Is it all right if 1 close the window? Will it cause you any trouble or discomfort if 1 close the window?Notice that the typical response is “no.” “Yes” means Yes, 1 mind. In other words: It is a problem for me. Another typical response might be “unh-uh,” meaning “no.”
20 Asking Someone to Do Something Would you mind closing the window? Excuse me. Would you mind repeating that? Typical Responses No. I’d be happy to. / Not at all. I’d be glad to. informal : No problem. / Sure. / Okay. Notice in: Would you mind is followed by the -ing form of a verb (a gerund). The meaning : 1 don’t want to cause you any trouble, but would you please close the window? Would that cause you any inconvenience?
21 The informal responses “Sure” and “Okay” are common but not logical The informal responses “Sure” and “Okay” are common but not logical. The speaker means No, 1 wouldn't mind but seems to be saying the opposite: Yes, 1 would mind. Native speakers understand that the response “Sure” or “Okay” in this situation means that the speaker agrees to the request.
22 Exercise 5, p.160Make sentences using Would you mind . 2. a. I want you to speak with John, b. I want to speak with John. 3. a. I want to turn on the air conditioner. b. I want you to turn on the air conditioner.
23 Answers- Exercise 5, p. 160.2. a. Would you mind speaking with John? b. Would you mind if I spoke with John? 3. a. Would you mind if I turned on the air conditioner? b. Would you mind turning on the air conditioner?
24 Exercise 6, p.161Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. Use if I + the past tense or the -in g form o f the verb. In some of the sentences, either response is possible, but the meaning is different. 2. A: Are you coming with us? B: I know I promised to go with you, but I’m not feeling very good. Would you mind (stay) ________ home? A: Of course not. 3. A: It’s getting hot in here. Would you mind (open) ________ the window? B: No. 4. A: This is probably none of my business, but would you mind (ask) _____ you a personal question? B: It depends.
25 Cont…Exercise 6, p.1615. A: Would you mind (smoke) ________? B: I ’d really rather you didn’t. 6. A: Excuse me. Would you mind (speak) _____ a little more slowly? I didn’t catch B: Oh, of course. I’m sorry. 7. A: I don’t like this TV program. Would you mind (change) _______ the channel? B: Unh-uh.
26 AnswersExercise 6, p if I stayed 3. if I opened / opening 4. if I asked 5. if I smoked 6. speaking 7. if I changed / changing
27 Exercise 9, p.162Complete the polite requests with your own words. Try to imagine what the speaker might say in the given situation. 2. Waiter : Good evening. Are you ready to order? Customer : No, we’re not. Could _________________? Waiter : Certainly. I’ll be back shortly. 3. Sally : Are you driving to the meeting tonight? Sam : Uh-huh, I am. Sally : Could _______________________________? Sam: Sure. I’ll pick you up at 7: Mr. Penn : Something’s come up, and I can’t meet with you Tuesday. Would you mind_______________________? Ms. Gray: Let me check my calendar.
28 Cont…Exercise 9, p.1625. Mechanic : What seems to be the trouble with your car? Customer : Something ’s wrong with the brakes, I think. Could ____________________________? Mechanic : Sure. Just pull the car into the garage. 6. Shelley : Are you enjoying the movie? Mike : Yeah, you? Shelley : Yes, but I can’t see over the man in front of me. Would you mind ___________ ? Mike : Not at all. I see two empty seats a cross the aisle.
29 Anwers Exercise 9, p. 162. Sample answers: 2. you give us a little more time3. I get a ride4. rescheduling / if I reschedule / if we reschedule5. you take a look
30 Exercise 12. Warm-up, p163Read the statements. Choose the more typical context (a. or b.) for the words in blue. Discuss their meanings.1. Gosh! Look at the time. I’ve got to go. I have class in five minutes!a. everyday conversation b. formal writing2. All applicants must be 18 years of age and must have a valid driver’s license.3. We have to prepare a research paper on global warming in Dr. Chen’s seminar this term. I think it’ll be interesting.(Answers 1. a b 3. a )
31 Expressing Necessity: Must, Have To, Have Got To Must, Have To All applicants must take an entrance exam. All applicants have to take an entrance exam. Must and have to both express necessity. The meaning is the same : It is necessary for every applicant to take an entrance exam. There is no other choice. The exam is required.
32 - I’m looking for Sue. 1 have to talk to her about our lunch date tomorrow. 1 can't meet her for lunch because 1 have to go to a business meeting at 1:00. (Means: 1 need to do this, and 1 need to do that). -Where’s Sue? I must talk to her right away. I have an urgent message for her. (The meaning is stronger : This is very important!).
33 In everyday statements of necessity, have to is used more commonly than must. Must is usually stronger than have to and can indicate urgency or stress importance. Must is a strong word, (meaning necessity) is relatively rare in conversation. It is usually found in legal or academic writing.
34 I have to (“hafta”) be home by eight I have to (“hafta”) be home by eight. He has to (“hasta”) go to a meeting tonight. NOTE : Native speakers often say “hafta” and “hasta“.
35 Have Got To I have got to go now. I have a class in ten minutes Have Got To I have got to go now. I have a class in ten minutes. I have to go now. I have a class in ten minutes. Have got to also expresses the idea of necessity: The two sentences have the same meaning. Have got to is informal and is used primarily in spoken English. Have to is used in both formal and informal English.
36 I have got to go (“I’ve gotta go / 1 gotta go”) now I have got to go (“I’ve gotta go / 1 gotta go”) now. The usual pronunciation of got to is "gotta.” Sometimes have is dropped in speech: “1 gotta do it.”
37 Past NecessityPRESENT OR FUTURE I have to / have got to / must study tonight. PAST I had to study last night. Had to expresses past necessity. had to = needed to: 1 needed to study last night. There is no other past form for must (when it means necessity) or have got to.
38 Exercise 14. Warm-up, p. 165Choose the sentences that Speaker B might say in response to Speaker A.Speaker A: The meeting starts in an hour. Was We have plenty of time.Speaker B: 1. We must not hurry.2. We don’t have to hurry.3. We don’t need to hurry.(answers 2&3)
39 Lack of Necessity and Prohibition: Have To and Must in the Negative Tomorrow is a holiday. We don’t have to go to class.(Means : We don’t need to go to class tomorrow because it is a holiday.)1 can hear you. You don’t have to shout.When used in the negative, must and have to have different meanings.Negative form: do not have to = lack of necessity.
40 Lack of necessity may also be expressed by need not + the simple form of a verb: You needn’t shout. The use of needn't as an auxiliary is chiefly British except in certain common expressions such as: You needn’t worry.
41 Prohibition You must not tell anyone my secret. Do you promise Prohibition You must not tell anyone my secret. Do you promise? must not = prohibition (DO NOT DO THIS !) Means: Do not tell anyone my secret. 1 forbid it . Tell Telling anyone my secret is prohibited. Negative contraction: mustn’t. (The first “t” is silent.)
42 Don’t tell anyone my secret. You can’t tell anyone my secret Don’t tell anyone my secret. You can’t tell anyone my secret. You’d better not tell anyone my secret. Because must not is so strong, speakers also express prohibition with imperatives, or with other modals.
43 Exercise 15, p. 165Complete the sentences with must not or do /does not have to. 2. In order to be a good salesclerk, you___ be rude to customers. 3. You ___ introduce me to Dr. Gray. We’ve already met. 4. A person ___ become rich and famous in order to live a successful life. 5. If you encounter a growling dog, you ___ show any signs of fear. If a dog senses fear, it is more likely to attack a person.
44 Cont…Exercise 15, p.1656. I ___ go to the doctor. I’m feeling much better. 7. We ___ go to the concert if you don’t want to, but it might be good. 8. A person ___ get married in order to lead a happy and fulfilling life.
45 Answers…exercise 15, p. 165.2. In order to be a good salesclerk, you must not be rude to customers. 3. You don’t have to introduce me to Dr. Gray. We’ve already met. 4. A person doesn’t have to become rich and famous in order to live a successful life. 5. If you encounter a growling dog, you must not show any signs of fear. If a dog senses fear, it is more likely to attack a person. 6. I don’t have to go to the doctor. I’m feeling much better. 7. We don’t have to go to the concert if you don’t want to, but it might be good. 8. A person doesn’t have to get married in order to lead a happy and fulfilling life.
46 Exercise 18, p. 166Read the situation. What advice would you give Amir? Situation : Amir has a bad toothache. 1. He should see a dentist immediately. 2. He should wait and see if the pain goes away. 3. He should call an ambulance. 4. He should put an ice-pack on his cheek. 5. He should take some pain medicine. 6. He should get his cousin to pull the tooth right away.
47 Answers Exercise 18, p. 166. Advice possibilities: 1, 2, 4, [Note: Item 6 is not advisable unless his cousin is a dentist.]
48 Advisability: Should, Ought To, Had Better You should study harder. You ought to study harder. (Means: This is a good idea. This is my advice.) Drivers should obey the speed limit. Drivers ought to obey the speed limit. (Means: This is an important responsibility.) Should and ought to both express advisability. Their meaning ranges in strength from a suggestion (This is a good idea) to a statement about responsibility or duty (This is a very important thing to do).
49 You shouldn’t leave your keys in the car You shouldn’t leave your keys in the car. Negative contraction: shouldn’t NOTE : the / t / is often hard to hear in relaxed, spoken English. 1 ought to (“otta") study tonight, but 1 think I’ll watch TV instead. Native speakers often pronounce ought to as “otta” in informal speech. Ought to is not commonly used in the negative. If it is, the to is sometimes dropped: You oughtn't (to) leave your keys in the car.
50 The gas tank is almost empty The gas tank is almost empty. We had better stop at the next gas station. (Means: If we don’t stop at a service station, there will be a bad result. We will run out of gas.) You had better take care of that cut on your hand soon, or it will get infected. In meaning, had better is close to should and ought to, but had better is usually stronger. Often had better implies a warning or a threat of possible bad consequences.
51 Notes on the use of had better: • It has a present or future meaning Notes on the use of had better: • It has a present or future meaning. • It is followed by the simple form of a verb. • It is more common in speaking than writing.
52 You’d better take care of it. (contraction) You better take care of it You’d better take care of it. (contraction) You better take care of it. (Sometimes in speaking, had is dropped.) You’d better not be late. Negative form: had better + not
53 Exercise 19, p. 167 1. A: The shoes I bought last week don’t fit. Complete the dialogues with your own words. Use should , ought to, or h a d better to give advice.1. A: The shoes I bought last week don’t fit.B: You _______________________________2. A: Have you gotten your airplane ticket?B: No, not yet.A: Flights fill up fast near the holidays. You _______________3. A: Yikes! My class starts in five minutes. I wasn’t watching the time.B: You ____________________________________4. A: I have the hiccups.B: You __________________________________5. A: I bought these organic apples, and all of them are rotten inside.B: You ________________________________________
54 Exercise 22, p. 168Which sentence in each pair is stronger? Discuss situations in which a speaker might say these sentences.1. a. You should go to a doctor.b. You’d better go to a doctor.2. a. Mary should go to work today.b. Mary must go to work today.3. a. We’ve got to go to class.b. We ought to go to class.4. a. I have to go to the post office.b. I should go to the post office.5. a. We shouldn’t go into that room.b. We must not go into that room.6. a. You’d better not go there alone.b. You shouldn’t go there alone.(Answers: 1.b 2.b 3.a 4.a 5.b 6.a)
55 Exercise 23, p. 169Complete the sentences with should or must/have to. In some sentences either one is possible, but the meaning is different. Discuss the difference in meanings. 3. If you want to become a doctor, you _____ go to medical school for many years. 4. I don’t have enough money to take the bus, so I _____ walk home. 5. Walking is good exercise. You say you want to get more exercise. You _____ walk to and from work instead of taking the bus. 6. We _____ go to Colorado for our vacation. 7. According to my advisor, I _____ take another English course. 8. Rice _____ have water in order to grow. 9. This pie is very good. You _____ try a piece. 10. This pie is excellent! You _____ try a piece.
56 Answers Exercise 23, p. 169. 3. must/have to 4. have to/must (have to is preferred because thesituation is not urgent or formal)5. should6. should (also possible: have to/must)7. should o r must/have to (if it’s a requirement of theschool)8. must/has to9. should10. must(Sometimes in speaking, must has the meaning of a very enthusiastic should) .
57 Exercise 25, p. 170Refer to your book, do the exercise.
58 The Past Form of Should1 had a test this morning. 1 didn't do well on the test because 1 didn’t study for it last night. 1 should have studied last night. (1 should have studied, means = Studying was a good idea, but 1 didn’t do it. 1 made a mistake). You were supposed to be here at 10:00 p.m., but you didn’t come until midnight. We were worried about you. You should have called us. (You did not call.) Past form: should have + past participle
59 The past form of ought to is ought to have + past participle ( I ought to have studied.). It has the same meaning as the past form of should . In the past, should is used more commonly than ought to. Had better is used only rarely in a past form (e.g., He had better have taken care of it.) and usually only in speaking, not writing.
60 My back hurts. I should not have carried that heavy box up two flights of stairs. (I carried the box, and now I’m sorry.) (Means: I carried something, but it turned out to be a bad idea. 1 made a mistake.) We went to a movie, but it was a waste of time and money. We should not have gone to the movie.
61 Exercise 27, p. 171Speaker A presents the given situation. Speaker B comments on it using should/shouldn’t have + past participle. Work in pairs, in groups, or as a class.1. Tim made a mistake yesterday. He left the door to his house open, and a bird flew in. He had a terrible time catching the bird.2. There was an important meeting yesterday afternoon, but you decided not to go. That was a mistake. Now your boss is angry.3. Emily didn’t feel good a couple of days ago. I told her to see a doctor, but she didn’t. That was a mistake. Now she is very sick.4. Nick signed a contract to buy some furniture without reading it thoroughly. Now he has discovered that he is paying a higher interest rate than he expected. He made a mistake.
62 Sample answers:Exercise 27, p He shouldn’t have left the door (to his house) open. 2. You should have gone (to the meeting). 3. She should have seen a doctor. 4. He should have read the contract (more) thoroughly.
63 Exercise 28, p. 171 1. You are cold because you didn’t wear a coat. Work with a partner. Partner A presents the situation. Partner B comments on it using should/shouldn't have + past participle.1. You are cold because you didn’t wear a coat.2. Your friend is upset because you didn’t return his call.3. The room is full of flies because you opened the window.4. You don’t have any food for dinner because you didn’t go to the grocery store.5. You bought a friend a box of candy for her birthday, but she doesn’t like candy.
64 Cont…Exercise 28, p. 171Change roles. 6. John loved Marta, but he didn’t marry her. Now he is unhappy. 7. John loved Marta, and he married her. But now he is unhappy. 8. The weather was beautiful yesterday, but you stayed inside all day. 9. You lent your car to your friend, but she had an accident because she was driving on the wrong side of the road. 10. You overslept this morning because you didn’t set your alarm clock.
65 Possible answers:Exercise 28, p I should have worn a coat. 2. I should have returned his call. 3. I shouldn’t have opened the window. 4. I should have gone to the grocery store. 5. I shouldn’t have bought her candy. 6. He should have married her. 7. He shouldn’t have married her. 8. I should have gone out. 9. I shouldn’t have lent her my car. 10. I should have set my alarm clock.
66 Exercise 29, p. 172Discuss or write what you think the people in the given situations should have done or shouldn’t have done. 1. Kazu and his wife, Julie, had good jobs as professionals in New York City. Kazu was offered a high-paying job in Chicago, which he immediately accepted. Julie was shocked when he came home that evening and told her the news. She liked her job and the people she worked with. She didn’t want to move away and look for another job. 2. For three years, Donna had been saving her money for a trip to Europe. Her brother, Hugo, had a good job, but he spent all of his money on expensive cars, clothes, and entertainment. Suddenly, Hugo was fired from work and had no money to support himself while he looked for another job. Donna lent him nearly all of her savings, and within three weeks he spent it all on his car, more clothes, and expensive restaurants.
67 Sample answers:Exercise 29, p Kazu should have talked with Julie first. He shouldn’t have accepted the job immediately. He should have thought about the offer before accepting. He should have known Julie would be upset. 2. Donna shouldn’t have lent Hugo nearly all of her savings. Hugo shouldn’t have spent her money so carelessly. Donna shouldn’t have trusted Hugo.
68 Obligation: Be Supposed To The game is supposed to begin at 10:00. The committee is supposed to vote by secret ballot. Be supposed to expresses the idea that someone (/, we, they, the teacher, lots of people, my father, etc.) expects something to happen. Be supposed to often expresses expectations about scheduled events, or correct procedures.
69 I am supposed to go to the meeting I am supposed to go to the meeting. My boss told me that he wants me to attend. The children are supposed to put away their toys before they go to bed. Be supposed to also expresses expectations about behavior. The meaning is the same in the two sentences: Someone else expects (requests or requires) certain behavior.
70 Jack was supposed to call me last night. I wonder why he didn’t Jack was supposed to call me last night. I wonder why he didn’t. Be supposed to in the past (was/were supposed to) expresses unfulfilled expectations. The meaning: 1 expected Jack to call, but he didn’t.
71 Exercise 31, p. 173Answer the questions in complete sentences. Use be supposed to. Work in pairs, in small groups, or as a class.1. What are you supposed to do if you’re involved in a traffic accident?2. What are you supposed to do prior to takeoff in an airplane?3. What are some things athletes in training are supposed to do, and some things they’re not supposed to do?4. If you’re driving and an ambulance with flashing lights and blaring sirens comes up behind you, what are you supposed to do?
72 Cont…Exercise 31, p.1735. Can you think of something you were supposed to do yesterday (or sometime in the past) but didn’t do? 6. What are we supposed to be doing right now? 7. Tell me about any job you’ve had. What were you supposed to do on a typical day? 8. In the place you live or work, who is supposed to do what? In other words, what are the duties or responsibilities of the people who live or work with you?
73 Sample answersExercise 31, p You’re supposed to contact the police / fill out an accident report / call your insurance company. 2. You’re supposed to put on your seat belt. 3. They are supposed to exercise. They are not supposed to eat unhealthy foods. 4. You’re supposed to pull over (onto the shoulder) (Answers will vary
74 Exercise 32, p. 174 Which sentence in each pair is stronger? 1. a. You had better wear a seat belt.b. You ought to wear a seat belt.2. a. You must wear a seat belt.b. You had better wear a seat belt.3. a. You have to wear a seat belt.b. You are supposed to wear a seat belt.4. a. We are supposed to bring pens.b. We have to bring pens.5. a. We ought to bring pens.b. We have got to bring pens.6. a. We had better bring pens.b. We should bring pens.(Answers: 1.a 2.a 3.a 4.b 5.b 6.a)
75 Exercise 35, p. 175, warm upCircle yes if the speaker is expressing an intention or plan; circle no if not. In which of thesesentences do you know for sure that the speaker did not complete the plan?1. I am going to call you at 9:00 tomorrow.( yes / no )2. I was going to call you, but I couldn’t find your phone number.( yes / no )3. I was going to class when I ran into a friend from childhood.4. I was planning to go to college right after high school but then decided to work for a year first. ( yes / no )5. I was working at my computer when the electricity went off.6. I had planned to talk to my manager today about a raise, but she was out sick. ( yes / no )
76 AnswersExercise 35, p yes 2. yes (plan not completed) 3. no 4. yes (plan not completed) 5. no 6. yes (plan not completed)
77 Unfulfilled Intentions: Was/Were Going To 1’m going to go to the concert tomorrow. I'm really looking forward to it. Am/is /are going to is used to talk about intentions for future activities. Jihad was going to go to the movie last night, but he changed his mind. Was !were going to talks about past intentions. Usually, these are unfulfilled intentions, i.e., activities someone intended to do but did not do. The meaning : Jihad was planning to go to the concert, but he didn’t go.
78 1 was planning to go, but 1 didn't. 1 was hoping to go, but 1 couldn’t 1 was planning to go, but 1 didn't. 1 was hoping to go, but 1 couldn’t. 1 was intending to go, but 1 didn’t. 1 was thinking about going, but 1 didn’t. 1 had hoped to go, but 1 couldn’t. 1 had intended to go, but 1 didn’t. 1 had thought about going, but 1 didn’t. 1 had planned to go, but 1 changed my mind. Other ways of expressing unfulfilled intentions are to use plan, hope, intend, and think a bout in the past progressive, or in the past perfect.
79 Exercise 36, p.176Restate each sentence in two other ways.1. I was going to stay home on my day off, but I had too much work at the office.2. I was going to surprise you with jewelry for your birthday, but I wasn’t sure what you’d like.3. I was going to reply to your right away, but I got distracted by my children.
80 AnswersExercise 36, p I had planned to stay home I was intending to stay home I had planned to surprise you I was intending to surprise you 3. I had planned to reply I was intending to reply . . .
81 Exercise 37, p. 176Take turns completing the sentences. Work in pairs or small groups. Share some of your answers with the class. 1. I was going to get up early this morning, but I had intended to meet you at the restaurant, but I was planning to visit you this weekend, but I had hoped to see you one more time before you left, but We had thought about inviting the Smiths to our party, but I was going to call you on your birthday, but We were hoping to see that movie in a theater, but
82 Sample answers:Exercise 37, p I overslept 2. I got lost 3. I had to work 4. I couldn’t get time off 5. we decided they wouldn’t know anyone 6. I had the wrong date 7. we missed it
83 Exercise 38. Warm-up.Imagine that next Tuesday you have a holiday. You and your roommate are making plans. Read the list of activities. Which ones sound good to you? Activities: 1. Let’s go to a movie. 2. Why don’t we study grammar all day? 3. Let’s go shopping. 4. Why don’t we fly to Paris for lunch? 5. Let’s play video games. 6. Why don’t we clean and do the laundry?
84 Making Suggestions: Let's , Why Don’t, Shall 1/ We Let’s go to a movie. let’s = let us Let’s is followed by the simple form of a verb. Let’s not go to a movie. Let’s stay home instead. Negative form: let’s + not + simple verb Let’s means 1 have a suggestion for us.
85 Why don't we go to a movie. (Means: Let's go to a movie Why don't we go to a movie? (Means: Let's go to a movie.) Why don't you come around seven? (Means:1 suggest that you come around seven.) Why don’t 1 give Mary a call? (Means: Should 1 give Mary a call? Do you agree with my suggestion?) Why don’t is used primarily in spoken English to make a friendly suggestion.
86 Shall 1 open the window? Is that okay with you? Shall we leave at two? Is that okay?When shall is used with I or we in a question, the speaker is usually making a suggestion and asking another person if she/he agrees with this suggestion.The use of shall + I/we is relatively formal and infrequent in American English.Let's go, shall we?Let’s go, okay?Sometimes shall we? is used as a tag question after let’s.More informally, okay? is used as a tag question.
87 Exercise 39. In your own words. P. 177 Complete the conversations with your own words. 2. A: I don’t feel like staying home today. B: Neither do I. Why don’t _____ A: Hey, that’s a great idea! What time shall _____ B: Let’s leave in an hour. 3. A: Shall ____or ______first? B: Let’s ____ first; then we can take our time over dinner. A: Why don’t ______ B: Good idea. 4. A: Let’s _____over the weekend. The fresh air would do us both good. B: I agree. Why don’t ____ A: No. Sleeping in a tent is too uncomfortable. Let’s ___ It won’t be that expensive, and we’ll have hot water and all the comforts of home.
88 Exercise 40, Warm up (page 178) Refer to your book, do the exercise.
89 Making Suggestions: Could vs. Should — What should we do tomorrow?Why don't we go on a picnic?We could go on a picnic.The meanings are similar: The speaker is suggesting a picnic.Could can be used to make suggestions.— I'm having trouble in math class.You should talk to your teacher.(Means: I believe it is important for you to do this. This is what 1 recommend.)Maybe you should talk to your teacher.(The use of maybe softens the strength of the advice.)Should gives definite advice and is stronger than could.
90 — I’m having trouble in math class. You could talk to your teacher. Or you could ask Ann to help you with your math lessons. Or 1 could try to help you.(Means: 1 have some possible suggestions for you. It is possible to do this. Or it is possible to do that)Could offers suggestions or possibilities.Might (but not may ) can also be used to make suggestions (You might talk to your teacher.), but could is more common.
91 — 1 failed my math class. You should have talked to your teacher and gotten some help from her during the term. (Means: It was important for you to talk to the teacher, but you didn’t do it. You made a mistake.) Should have (past form) gives "hindsight” advice (Looking back at something after it happens.)
92 — 1 failed my math class. You could have talked to your teacher — 1 failed my math class. You could have talked to your teacher. Or you could have asked Ann to help you with your math. Or 1 could have tried to help you. (Means: You had the chance to do this or that. It was possible for this or that to happen. You missed some good opportunities). Could have (past form) offers "hindsight” possibilities.
93 Exercise 41, p. 179Discuss Speaker B ’s and C’s use of should and could . What are the differences in meaning?1. A: Ted doesn’t feel good. He has a bad stomachache. What do you think he should do?B: He should see a doctor.C: Well, I don’t know. He could call a doctor. He could call Dr. Sung. Or he could callDr. Jones. Or he could simply stay in bed for a day and hope he feels better tomorrow.2. A: I need to get to the airport.B: You should take the airport bus. It’s cheaper than a taxi.C: Well, you could take the airport bus. Or you could take a taxi. Maybe Matt could take you. He has a car.3. A: I took a taxi to the airport, and it cost me a fortune.B: You should have taken the airport bus.C: You could have taken the airport bus. Or maybe Matt could have taken you.