Presentation on theme: "English 110 With your host Prof. Antonio A. Ortiz Perez."— Presentation transcript:
English 110 With your host Prof. Antonio A. Ortiz Perez
Modal Auxiliaries Modal auxiliaries or modals as they are also called are auxiliaries that help you express mood. e.g. You shouldn’t do drugs; they can kill you. I must stop for gas. The city ought to repair all the potholes in the city of Mayaguez.
Modals: Can Can is used to express: 1. Physical ability e.g. Lewis can swim a few miles. They can lift 200 lbs. very easily. They can lift 200 lbs. very easily. We can ride on horse back. We can ride on horse back. John can run extremely fast. John can run extremely fast. I can see in the dark. I can see in the dark. His brother can climb cliffs. His brother can climb cliffs.
Modals: Can 2.Learned ability e.g. My professor can speak several languages. languages. Valerie can play the piano. Valerie can play the piano. Nancy can fly small airplanes. Nancy can fly small airplanes. Christopher’s father can cook very Christopher’s father can cook very well. well. The policeman can draw his pistol very The policeman can draw his pistol very fast. fast. She can read and speak French. She can read and speak French.
Modals: Can 3. Can is also used to ask or give permission. (informal) e.g. Can I leave the room? (asking ) Yes, you can. (giving) Can’t (the negative form of can) is Can’t (the negative form of can) is used to deny permission. used to deny permission. e.g. No, you can’t.
Modals: Can 4. Can is also used to express possibility. 4. Can is also used to express possibility. e.g. Iran can produce millions of barrels of petroleum per day. North Korea can become a nuclear power. A nuclear conflict can explode between the US and North Korea.
Modals: Could Could is used to: 1. Ask and give permission like can. Its use is also informal. e.g. Could we please see you later, professor? (asking) Answer: Yes, you can. (giving) Couldn’t is used to deny permission. e.g. No, you couldn’t.
Modals: Could 2. Express slight probability. e.g. Juan is absent today. He could be ill. ill. It could rain today. I could be out next Thursday. Samuel could decide between being an engineer and a lawyer. Samuel could decide between being an engineer and a lawyer.
Modals: May/Might May and might are used to: 1. Ask and give permission. Their use is formal in nature. e.g. May I close the window? Ans. Yes, you may. May not, the negative form of may, is used to deny permission. e.g. No, you may not.
Modals: May/ Might 2. May/might are also used to express slight probability. e.g. It may rain today, but no one knows. The teacher didn’t see Rachel today. She may be sick. Who knows?
Modals: Must Must is used to express: 1. Obligation e.g. You must see a doctor about your cough. It’s getting worst. We must stop for gas or we’ll run out of it on the highway. All of us must be better citizens.
Modals: Must It is also used to express strong probability. e.g. The old lady fainted. She must be feeling ill. The clouds are very dark. It must definitely rain today.
Modals: Mustn’t Mustn’t is used to express prohibition. e.g. Bart, you mustn’t come home later than eleven o’ clock tonight. You mustn’t use drugs. We mustn’t spoil the country. The world mustn’t continue using nuclear weapons. The countries of the world mustn’t wage war against one another anymore.
Modals: Should/ Ought to Should/ ought to are utilized to express: 1. Recommendation e.g. Students should study to do well on their tests. You should see more documentaries because they help you learn more. Jackson ought to talk with a lawyer about his inheritance.
Modals: Should/ Ought to 2. Expectation e.g. The state government should take us out of this economic crisis. All of us should do more to make our country a very clean and prosperous place to live. The city government ought to clean and repair the streets of the city. The city government ought to clean and repair the streets of the city. Puerto Ricans should live better, but they don’t. Puerto Ricans should live better, but they don’t. We should take care of the environment or we’ll destroy the planet. We should take care of the environment or we’ll destroy the planet.
Modals: Should/Ought to 3. Advisability e.g. We should progress as much as we can no matter what happens. Parents ought to teach their kids more respect and manners. Love for one’s parents and the environment ought to be a priority.