2Terms Society Morality Ethics An association of people organized under a system of rules designed to advance the good of its members over timeMoralityRules of conduct describing what people ought and ought not to do in various situationsEthicsThe philosophical study of morality, a rational examination into people’s moral beliefs and behaviors
3Scenario 1 page 56 Did Alexis do anything wrong? Who benefited from Alexis’s course of action?Who was hurt by Alexis’s course of action?Did Alexis have unfair advantage over her high school classmates?Would any of your answers change if it turns out Alexis did not win a college scholarship after all and is now working at McDonalds?Are there better ways Alexis could have accomplished her objective?What additional information would help you answer the previous questions?
4Scenario 2 page 57 Did the anti-spam organization do anything wrong? Did the ISPs that refused to accept from the blacklisted ISPs do anything wrong?Who benefited from the organization’s action?Who was hurt by the organization’s action?Could the organization have achieved its goals through a better course of action?What additional information would help you answer the previous questions?
5Scenario 3 page 57 Did the East Dakota State Police do anything wrong? Who benefited from the actions of the EDSP?Who was hurt by the actions of the EDSP?What other courses of action could the EDSP have taken to achieve its objectives? Examine the advantages and disadvantages of these alternative courses of action.What additional information would help you answer the previous questions?
6Scenario 4 page 58Should you recommend release of the product next week?Who will benefit if the company follows your recommendation?Who will be harmed if the company follows your recommendation?Do you have an obligation to any group of people that may be affected by your decision?What additional information would help you answer the previous questions?
7Ethical Theories 2400 years ago Socrates was His student, Plato, put Socrates’ philosophy in writingA useful theory is one that allows its proponents to examine moral problems, reach conclusions and defend those conclusions in front of a skeptical, yet open-minded audienceIf you are unable to give logical reasons that support your conclusions, you are unlikely to persuade anyoneFollowing are 7 ethical theories
8Subjective Relativism There are no universal moral norms of right and wrongIndividuals or groups can have completely opposite views of a moral problem and both can be rightSubjective RelativismHolds that each person decides right and wrong for himself/herselfCases for and against
9Cultural RelativismThe meaning of right and wrong rests with a society’s actual moral guidelinesThe guidelines vary from place to place and time to timeRead dilemma p. 63Cases for and against
10Divine CommandThis theory is based on the idea that good actions are those aligned with the will of God and bad actions are those contrary to the will of GodCases for and against
11KantianismKant believed that people’s actions ought to be guided by moral laws and that these laws were universalIn order to apply to all rational beings, any supreme principle of morality must itself be based on reasonKant concluded that the only thing in the world that can be called good without qualification is good willAccordingly, we should focus on what we ought to do ... dutifulnessAllows the moral laws to be derived through a reasoning processA Kantian goes beyond simply stating that an action is right or wrong and can explain why it is right or wrongCategorical Imperatives (1st and 2nd page 70 and 71)Scenario p. 72Cases for and against
12Act Utilitarianism An action is good if it benefits someone An action is bad if it harms someoneThe principle of utilityAn action is right (or wrong) to the extent that it increases (or decreases) the total happiness of the affected partiesScenario page 75Cases for and against
13Rule UtilitarianismWe ought to adopt those moral rules which, if followed by everyone, will lead to the greatest increase in total happinessApplies the principle of utility to moral rules instead of individual moral actionsScenario page 79Cases for and against
14Social ContractRational people understand that cooperation is essential and possible only when people mutually agree to follow certain guidelinesThus, moral rules are set up when those living in a civilized society agree to:Establish a set of moral rules to govern relations among citizensA government capable of enforcing those rulesRousseau adds that the critical problem is to find an association that guarantees each person safety and property, yet enables each person to remain freeScenario page 86Cases for and against