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Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers I., Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2008. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers I., Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2008. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers I., Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica engleskog jezika za pomorce, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka Tomislav Skračić, MA Undergraduate English Course for MARINE ENGINEERS 2nd Semester

2 MODAL VERBS – Review Look at the following English Modal Verbs Table

3 Modal verbs table ModalUsageExample can abilityI can do several things at the same time. when something is possible Miracles can happen. permissionYou can go now. informal requestsCan you come for a minute? could past form of "can"She said she could pay for us as well. polite requestsCould you move your bag, please? possibilityIt could be that he missed the train. may possibilityIt may rain tomorrow. ask or give permission (formal) May I speak? might past form of "may"He said he might change his mind. possibilityThis might fail.

4 Modal verbs table English Modal Verbs Table must you have to do itYou must obey the law it's very logical or very likely to happen They left so early, they must be home by now. must not / mustn't you are not allowed to do it You mustn't smoke in here. shall future for "I" and "we" I shall see him tomorrow. questions and suggestions for "I" and "we" Let's continue, shall we? should the right thing to do She should call the police. advice - What should I do? - You should stop thinking about it. what is likely or expected to happen We should be back by midnight.

5 English Modal Verbs Table will future action or states (not plans) Prices will go up next summer. promises and intentionsIt's alright, I'll pick it up. would past form of "will"He told me he would come. imagined situations What would you do if you were him? for polite requests, offers and invitations -Would you please sit down? - Would you like some tea? - We are meeting with Sarah next Saturday, would you like to come along? to say what you want to do or have I would like a piece of cake. ought tothe right thing to doYou ought to apologize. End of English Modal Verbs Table

6 MODAL VERBS – Review Look at the following Situations Table

7 SituationModal VerbExample requests (formal) mayMay I sit down? requests (informal) canCan I sit down? requests (polite) couldCould I sit down? requests (polite) would Would you mind if I sit down? permission (formal) mayYou may sit down. permission (informal) canYou can sit down. obligation (full) must You must tell the police the truth. obligation (partial) should You should tell your friends the truth. obligation (partial) (less common) ought to You ought to tell your friends the truth.

8 SituationModal VerbExample logical conclusions (stronger than "should") must He left an hour ago, so he must be there already. logical conclusions (weaker than "must") should He left half an hour ago, I believe he should be there already. possibility (general) canIt can rain sometimes. possibility (weaker than "may" and "might") could It could rain, but it is not very common in this part of the country. possibility (weaker than "may") might It's not very cloudy yet, but it might rain. possibility (stronger than "might") may It starts getting cloudy – it may rain soon. future actions/states/intentions will Look at the sky! It will rain soon. End of Modal Verbs Situation Table

9 MODAL VERBS in the past Examples: The music can’t have been any good. Nobody danced. Where’s Pete? He should’ve been here ages ago. He may have got lost. He might have decided not to come. He could have had an accident. It must have been a good party. Everyone stayed till dawn.

10 MODAL VERBS in the past Could have / Might have They mean to say that if we had wanted something in the past, we had had the opportunity to do it. - I could have moved out when I was 18, but I didn't want to leave my family. (I chose to stay) - I might have moved out, but I didn't want to leave my family. (I chose to stay) - I could have gone out with my friends but I wanted to watch the soccer game. (I could but I didn't go with them) - I might have gone out with my friends but I wanted to watch the soccer game. (I could but I didn't go with them) In both sentences, either action was possible for me but I stayed home to watch the game.

11 MODAL VERBS in the past Should have / Ought to have It was in the past, and we didn't do something we were supposed to do. It was a mistake. - You should have checked your answers thoroughly before you handed in your exam. (but you didn't which was a mistake) - You ought to have checked. (Same but stronger than should have) - You shouldn’t have been watching TV all night yesterday, that’s why you feel so tired now. - You should have / ought to have asked my permission before you used my computer. I’m really angry with you. BUT: - You needn’t have asked my permission before you used my computer. I wouldn’t be angry with you.

12 MODAL VERBS in the past Must have / Would have Referring to past events. We use “Must have” when we talk about our strong opinions based on evidences / facts. - Do you know Ryan's math grade? - I don't know but he must have got an A. (His math is really good) “Would have” also refers to past events. It is more about something we chose to do or not to do in the past because a certain necessity was not met. I would have moved out but I hadn't had enough money. (I wanted to move out but I didn't have money) I would have never divorced him if he hadn't hit me. (He hit me, so I divorced him)

13 MODAL VERBS in the past Couldn't have It means to say that in the past even if we had wanted something, we didn’t have the chance to do it. - I couldn't have visited you when I was in Paris as I didn't know your address. (I didn't visit you - it was not possible anyway)

14 Exercise 1 Put in ‘can’ / ‘can’t’ / ‘could’ / ‘couldn’t’. If none is possible, use ‘be able to’ in the correct tense: 1. James _________________ speak Japanese when he lived in Japan, but he’s forgotten most of it now. 2. I _________________ understand the chapter we had to read for homework. It was so difficult. 3. I _________________ lift this box – it’s too heavy! Would you help me? 4. Lucy _________________ make it to our meeting after all. She’s stuck in traffic at the moment. 5. John _________________ play tennis really well. He’s champion of his club. 6. Unfortunately, I really _________________ sing at all! No-one in my family is musical either. 7. When I grow up I _________________ solve all problems.

15 Exercise 1 – KEY 1. James could speak Japanese when he lived in Japan, but he’s forgotten most of it now. 2. I couldn’t understand the chapter we had to read for homework. It was so difficult. 3. I can’t lift this box – it’s too heavy! Would you help me? 4. Lucy can’t make it to our meeting after all. She’s stuck in traffic at the moment. 5. John can play tennis really well. He’s champion of his club. 15. Unfortunately, I really can’t sing at all! No-one in my family is musical either. 16. When I grow up I will be able to solve all problem.

16 Exercise 2 Complete the sentences using CAN, COULD, MUST, MIGHT or SHOULD. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer. 1.Lucy's engagement ring is enormous! It ________ have cost a fortune. 2.If you want to get a better idea about Bristol, you ________ walk uptown and explore the district called Clifton. 3.Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone on holiday. If they don't get enough water, they ________ die. 4.You ________ take your umbrella along with you today. The weather forecast said there will be some heavy showers today. 5.I'm not really sure where Helen is. She ________ be in the living room, or perhaps she's in the garden. 6.You ________ be kidding! It can't be true.

17 Exercise 3 Put in ‘mustn’t’ or ‘don’t / doesn’t have to’: 1.We have a lot of work tomorrow. You _______________ be late. 2.You _______________ tell anyone what I just told you. It’s a secret. 3.The museum is free. You _______________ pay to get in. 4.Children _______________ tell lies. It’s very naughty. 5.John’s a millionaire. He _______________ go to work. 6.I _______________ do my washing, because my mother does it for me. 7.We _______________ rush. We’ve got plenty of time. 8.You _______________ smoke inside the engine room.

18 Exercise 3 – KEY 1.We have a lot of work tomorrow. You mustn’t be late. 2.You mustn’t tell anyone what I just told you. It’s a secret. 3.The museum is free. You don’t have to pay to get in. 4.Children mustn’t tell lies. It’s very naughty. 5.John’s a millionaire. He doesn’t have to go to work. 6.I don’t have to do my washing, because my mother does it for me. 7.We don’t have to rush. We’ve got plenty of time. 8.You mustn’t smoke inside the engine room.

19 Exercise 4 Put in ‘must + infinitive’ or ‘must + have + past participle’: 1.Petra always does really well on exams. She _____________ (study) a lot. 2.That woman drives a very expensive car. She _____________ (have) a lot of money. 3.You _____________ (practise) a lot before you gave your speech. It was really great. 4.When Lizzie got home yesterday, there were flowers on the table. Her husband _____________ (buy) them. 5.Where is my purse? I saw it earlier, so it _____________ (be) in this room. 6.Sarah couldn’t find her glasses. She thought she _____________ (leave) them at her office. 7.It _____________ (be) cold outside. That man in the street is wearing a coat.

20 Exercise 4 – KEY 1.Petra always does really well on exams. She must study a lot. 2.That woman drives a very expensive car. She must have a lot of money. 3.You must have practised a lot before you gave your speech. It was really great. 4.When Lizzie got home yesterday, there were flowers on the table. Her husband must have bought them. 5.Where is my purse? I saw it earlier, so it must be in this room. 6.Sarah couldn’t find her glasses. She thought she must have left them at her office. 7.It must be cold outside. That man in the street is wearing a coat.

21 MODAL VERBS Find more information and exercise at:


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