Presentation on theme: "The Self Learning about the Self"— Presentation transcript:
1The Self Learning about the Self Chapter 4The Self Learning about the Self
2What is the Self?The set of beliefs we hold about who we are is called the self-concept.
3What is the Self?Infancy: one recognizes that one is a separate individualChildhood: one labels personal qualities and abilitiesAdolescence: the self becomes critically important as a basis for making life decisionsMiddle & Late Adulthood: the self continues to change, though generally not as extensively
4What is the Self? Self-esteem is the evaluation we make of ourselves. People who are high in self-concept clarity are more likely to be high in self-esteem.We have an overall sense of self-esteem as well as self-esteem in more specific domains.We also have implicit or less conscious self-esteem as well as explicit self-esteem.
5Sources of Self-Knowledge SocializationReflected AppraisalFeedback from OthersSelf-Perception and Labeling Arousal StatesEnvironmental DistinctivenessComparison of Self and OthersSocial Identity
6Sources of Self-Knowledge Labeling Arousal StatesSchachter (1964) suggested that perception of our own emotions depends on two factors:the degree of physiological arousal we havethe cognitive label we apply to that arousal (e.g., angry or happy).
7Sources of Self-Knowledge Schachter & Singer (1962) gave participants an injection of epinephrine (adrenaline).Half of the injected participants were correctly informed of the arousing effects of the drug; half were misled. A control group received no injection.Participants who were physiologically aroused but not sure why (the misinformed group) “took on” the emotions of a confederate (angry or euphoric).
8Sources of Self-Knowledge Conceptions of the self vary greatly depending on the culture one lives in.WesternEastern/LatinIndependentInterdependentEmphasizes uniquenessEmphasizes shared attributesSeparate from othersEmphasizes social relationshipsStable across situationsChanging across situations
9Sources of Self-Knowledge Those with an independent self frequently experience ego-focused emotions such as pride or frustrationThose with an interdependent self experience other-focused emotions such as amaeSelf-esteem is more highly related to life satisfaction in individualistic cultures than in collectivist ones.
10Aspects of Self-Knowledge Self-schemas describe the dimensions along which you think about yourself.Self-schemas:Guide behavior in relevant situations.Aid memory for relevant informationInfluence inferences, decisions, & judgments
11Aspects of Self-Knowledge Possible selves are conceptions of potential future selves.represent hopes and fears for the futurehelp people focus and organize plans for pursuing goals.
12Aspects of Self-Knowledge Self-DiscrepanciesDiscrepancies between one’s actual self-concept and one’s hoped for ideal selves produce dejection-related emotions.Discrepancies between the actual self and our ought selves produce agitation-related emotions.
13Aspects of Self-Knowledge People who are more concerned with becoming their ideal selves recall having been raised by their parents in a warm and supportive wayThose who are more concerned with their ought selves recall a more rejecting parenting style.
14Aspects of Self-Knowledge Those with an independent self are more motivated by self-ideal discrepanciesThose with an interdependent self are more motivated by actual self-other “ought” discrepancies.
15Self-RegulationSelf-regulations refers to the way in which people control and direct their own actions.
16Self-RegulationThe working self-concept is the aspect of the self-concept that is accessed for a particular situation.Provides a basis for moment-to-moment fluctuations in the sense of selfProvides a mechanism through which long-term self-concept change can occur.
17Self-Regulation Self-Complexity Some people think of themselves in one or two predominant ways; others have more of a variety of qualities they focus on.Those with more simple self-conceptions are more vulnerable to failures in their critical domains.Self-complexity can buffer against the effects of failure, as long as the self-conceptions are also positive.
18Self-RegulationSelf-efficacy beliefs are the expectations we have about our ability to accomplish certain tasks. They are highly specific perceptions of control and competence.
19Self-Regulation People have two independent motivational systems A behavioral activation system (BAS) that fosters approachA behavioral inhibition system (BIS) that fosters avoidance.People who are high in actual-ideal self-discrepancies may be more BAS-oriented, while those who are high in actual-ought self-discrepancies may be more BIS-oriented.
20Self-RegulationSelf-awareness is the state of being aware of oneself as an object of our own and others’ attention (as opposed to having our attention focused outwardly towards the environment).
21Self-RegulationCybernetic theory of self-regulation: Self-awareness leads people to evaluate their behavior against a standard and to adjust their behavior until it either meets the standard or they give up.
22Self-RegulationPublic self-consciousness involves concern with how other people think about you, while private self-consciousness involves attention to inner feelings and self-analysis.The two are independent of each other.Those high in public self-consciousness are concerned with autonomy & identity and are more likely to adjust their behavior to external standards of othersThose high in private self-consciousness have better articulated self-schemas and are more focused on internal goals and standards.
23Motivation and the Self People generally seek an accurate, stable, and positive self-concept.
24Motivation and the Self The Need for an Accurate Self-ConceptPeople will be motivated to seek information that is most informative about their abilitiesespecially when their knowledge of that ability is uncertain, and when factors that induce people to try to save face are absent.
25Motivation and the Self The Need for a Consistent Self-ConceptPeople tend to seek out situations that confirm their already-existing self-conceptions and avoid or resist situations and feedback that disconfirm their existing self-beliefs. This process is known as self-verification.
26Motivation and the Self Self-ImprovementPeople are also motivated by the desire to improve themselves. This may lead to “upward comparisons” with others who possess desired attributes.
27Motivation and the Self Self-enhancement needs may predominate over needs for accuracy, consistency, and improvement much of the time—especially following threat, failure, and blows to self-esteem.Positive illusions are overly positive perceptions of oneself, one’s future, and one’s control over events.
28Motivation and the Self People are often self-enhancing.When are people likely to be realistic? When:they are about to receive feedback from otherswhen they make decisions about goals(if they are depressed or low in self-esteem.)
29Motivation and the Self Taylor and Brown (1988) argue that positive illusions are adaptive and promote a sense of well-being, positive social relationships, and the ability to engage in creative, productive work.
30Motivation and the Self People from Western cultures are more likely to self-enhance, while those from interdependent cultures may be more likely to engage in self-criticism.
31Motivation and the Self Self-affirmation theory predicts that people will cope with threats to self-worth by affirming unrelated aspects of themselves.People high in self-esteem may be more likely to use self-affirmation.Self-affirming may help people be less defensive and more accepting of criticism.
32Motivation and the Self According to terror management theory, people are fearful of their own mortality. They seek to minimize this anxietyby holding a cultural world-view that makes sense of an otherwise threatening worldby having personal self-esteem that leads to the sense that one is an object of value in a meaningful universe.
33Motivation and the Self Tesser’s self-evaluation maintenance model states that other people’s performance reflects on our feelings about ourselves.Our feelings are a function ofour own relative performance,our closeness to the other,the personal relevance of the domain.
34Motivation and the Self When other people we are close to outperform us in a domain that is personally relevant, we compare ourselves to them and feel envious. However, if the domain is not personally relevant, we will “bask in the reflected glory” of the other
35Motivation and the Self Culture and Self-EnhancementSelf-enhancement biases appear stronger in cultures with an independent self-concept than in those with an interdependent self-concept.
36Social Comparison Theory Leon Festinger (1954) developed social comparison theory:people have a drive to evaluate their opinions and abilities accurately;in the absence of objective standards, people evaluate themselves by comparison with othersin general, people prefer comparisons with similar others.
37Social Comparison Theory The Goals of Social ComparisonAccurate Self-EvaluationSelf-Enhancementleads to downward social comparisonsSelf-Improvementleads to upward social comparisonsSense of Communion
38Social Comparison Theory The Comparison ProcessSocial comparison affects self-evaluations, moods, and responses to others.For example, Morse and Gergen (1970) placed an ad for a research assistant. Prospective candidates found themselves waiting in a room with either “Mr. Clean” or “Mr. Dirty.”Those who found themselves in a room with Mr. Clean experienced a drop in self-esteem, while those who found themselves with Mr. Dirty experienced an increase.
39Social Comparison Theory Which dimensions do we compare ourselves on?Related attributes similarity: We compare ourselves with others based on a similarity of backgrounds and preparation.When a dimension is completely unfamiliar, people compare themselves to both the best and the worst cases
40Social Comparison Theory Social comparison can lead us to see ourselves as similar to others (assimilation) or different from them (contrast).Contrast tends to occur when the information comes from the other and when the other is very differentAssimilation occurs when we compare similar others to ourselves.
41Self-PresentationSelf-presentation involves attempting to control the impressions we convey to others to obtain desired outcomes.Public self-presentations can affect our private self-concepts.To be successful in self-presentation, we need to be able to “take the role of the other.”
42Self-PresentationPeople generally intend to make a good impression. They do this byconforming to the norms of the situationself-promotioningratiation or flattery
43Self-PresentationSelf-promotion can be tricky, as one tries to avoid appearing egotistical.Modesty is another tricky self-presentation strategyit is most effective when the person has a success that is well-known to others.
44Self-Presentation Ineffective Self-Presentation Embarrassment occurs when there are disruptions, lapses, or flaws in self-presentation.In the face of an ineffective presentation, one can make excuses.Excuses that attribute blame to external, uncontrollable causes are more effective than those to internal and controllable ones.
45Self-PresentationSelf-handicapping is a strategy for dealing with prospective failure in which a person engages in actions that produce obstacles to success.By arranging an excuse for failure beforehand, people preserve their self-esteem in case of a later failure.
46Self-PresentationSelf-handicapping can be done through either behaviors or verbal claims.Men are much more likely than women to use behavioral self-handicaps, while both sexes use verbal ones.Self-handicapping may work in the short term but has negative long-term consequences for performance and adjustment.
47Self-PresentationSandbagging is another preventative strategy that involves feigning inability or making false predictions of lack of success. It reduces performance pressures.
48Self-PresentationPeople with independent self-concepts are more likely to engage in self-promotionsince their goal is to reduce actual-ideal discrepanciesPeople with interdependent self-conceptions are more likely to engage in preventative self-presentationssince their goal is to reduce actual-ought discrepancies
49Culture and the Self: A Note The coverage of the self in this chapter has disproportionately emphasized the independent self.Many of the processes discussed may take a different form or be nonexistent in cultures with an interdependent self.