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MODALS THEORY & EXERCISES. What are « modals »? Modals (or modal verbs, auxiliaries) are used to modify the main verb and give a new meaning to the sentence.

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Presentation on theme: "MODALS THEORY & EXERCISES. What are « modals »? Modals (or modal verbs, auxiliaries) are used to modify the main verb and give a new meaning to the sentence."— Presentation transcript:

1 MODALS THEORY & EXERCISES

2 What are « modals »? Modals (or modal verbs, auxiliaries) are used to modify the main verb and give a new meaning to the sentence. Modals (or modal verbs, auxiliaries) are used to modify the main verb and give a new meaning to the sentence. The most common structure is modal + infinitive : I work The most common structure is modal + infinitive : I work I can work I must work I should work...

3 Modality meaning OBLIGATION OBLIGATION Must (self obligation) We must be generous. We must be generous. Have to (external requirement) We have to go. We have to go. Be to (formal) Visitors are to leave at 6 pm. Visitors are to leave at 6 pm. ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION Need not You needn’t help me.

4 Modality meaning WEAK OBLIGATION WEAK OBLIGATIONShould You should try. You should try. Ought to I ought to help you. I ought to help you. PROHIBITION Must not You mustn’t steal. May not They may not speak. Cannot I can’t tell you.

5 Modality meaning PERMISSION & HELP PERMISSION & HELP Can Could You can go out.Could you help me? You can go out.Could you help me? MayMight They may come in.They might sit. They may come in.They might sit. Be allowed toNeed not I was allowed to eat.I need not stay. I was allowed to eat.I need not stay.

6 Modality meaning DOUBT DOUBTMay This is a good proposition, so she may accept it. This is a good proposition, so she may accept it.Might Federer might lose his title soon. Federer might lose his title soon. BELIEF & DISBELIEF Must You must be tired. Can’t / couldn’t It can’t be true! They couldn’t have lied to their parents.

7 Modality meaning ABILITY & POSSIBILITY ABILITY & POSSIBILITY Can, could I can play the flute. I can play the flute. Be able to I was able to answer. I was able to answer. OTHERS To have something done I have my car repaired. Be to (future) She is to receive her diploma next week.

8 Semi-auxiliaries, marginal modals and modal idioms be able todarehad better be likely toneedwould rather be meant toought to... be willing toused to be supposed to......

9 Degrees of likelihood WILL MUST / HAVE TO CAN MAY SHOULD / OUGHT TO WOULD COULD MIGHT Manchester Utd [modal] win the championship in 2010.

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11 Consider the following sentences. What do the modals imply? The mountains should be visible from here. The mountains should be visible from here. There must be a mistake. There must be a mistake. Could you please give me a hand? Could you please give me a hand? May I ask you something? May I ask you something? Go to bed, you might feel better soon if you do. You really ought to phone Mum. They have to be careful with their money. It can’t be true!

12 Spot and correct the errors. It ought be changed immediately. It ought be changed immediately. Look at these darkd clouds! I’m sure it might rain. Look at these darkd clouds! I’m sure it might rain. You musn’t speak like this to your father. You musn’t speak like this to your father. It should to be easy to get her agreement. It should to be easy to get her agreement. Mr Spencer, can you help me? Mr Spencer, can you help me? Ten years ago, I was allowed to golf very well. Ten years ago, I was allowed to golf very well. I could like to do it, but I may not, sorry. I could like to do it, but I may not, sorry.

13 Some interactive exercises now... An easy one to start with... Exercise 1 Exercise 1 Now more difficult... But first, let’s watch Friends! (part 1) (part 2) Exercise Friends & Modals « The One with Monica and Chandler’s Wedding« Exercise Friends & Modals « The One with Monica and Chandler’s Wedding« In case the Friends exercise doesn’t work or is unavailable... Exercise 2 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 3 Alice in Wonderland Trailer Alice in Wonderland Trailer To help you revising: To help you revising: A very complete modals chart with examples (past, present, future) A very complete modals chart with examples (past, present, future)

14 Further exercises Create a poster with school rules (for students AND teachers) or laws in your own imaginary country. Create a poster with school rules (for students AND teachers) or laws in your own imaginary country. Imagine your ideal best friend /roommate / teacher / world / partner /... Imagine your ideal best friend /roommate / teacher / world / partner /... Draw some fancy roadsigns and have your classmates guess what they mean. Draw some fancy roadsigns and have your classmates guess what they mean. In groups, discuss and compare what you are (not) allowed to do at home / in your country (if you are a foreigner)... In groups, discuss and compare what you are (not) allowed to do at home / in your country (if you are a foreigner)... Act out a dialogue between a father and his daughter, using as many modals as possible. Start like this: « Dad, may I... ». Use your own experience! Act out a dialogue between a father and his daughter, using as many modals as possible. Start like this: « Dad, may I... ». Use your own experience! Act out a politician’s speech. Imagine you want to be elected President. Be as convincing as possible! Act out a politician’s speech. Imagine you want to be elected President. Be as convincing as possible!


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