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Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev.

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Presentation on theme: "Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev."— Presentation transcript:

1 Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014

2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 Discuss the symptoms and dangers of dehydration, and strategies used to combat its effects. Discuss the symptoms and dangers of dehydration, and strategies used to combat its effects. Discuss the symptoms and dangers of ear block, sinus block and hypoxia, and strategies used to combat their effects. Discuss the symptoms and dangers of ear block, sinus block and hypoxia, and strategies used to combat their effects. Review the effects of high altitude on aircraft performance Review the effects of high altitude on aircraft performance Concerning atmospheric pressure: Concerning atmospheric pressure: State the pressure at sea level, and describe how to compensate for ‘other-than-sea level pressures’ when setting the altimeterState the pressure at sea level, and describe how to compensate for ‘other-than-sea level pressures’ when setting the altimeter Discuss the three factors that affect the density of an air mass.Discuss the three factors that affect the density of an air mass. Define density altitudeDefine density altitude State the phases of flight affected by a decrease in atmospheric pressure, and how aircraft performance is affected. State the phases of flight affected by a decrease in atmospheric pressure, and how aircraft performance is affected. Discuss strategies to compensate for high DA during searches. Discuss strategies to compensate for high DA during searches. Discuss mountainous terrain precautions and strategies. Discuss mountainous terrain precautions and strategies. Objectives

4 Human Performance Dehydration The loss of water through the skin, lungs and kidneys never ceases The loss of water through the skin, lungs and kidneys never ceases Loss increases as the humidity drops with increasing altitudeLoss increases as the humidity drops with increasing altitude Symptoms are dryness of the tissues and resulting irritation of the eyes, nose and throat Symptoms are dryness of the tissues and resulting irritation of the eyes, nose and throat Minimize intake of coffee, tea, cola or cocoa since they contain caffeine and other chemicals Minimize intake of coffee, tea, cola or cocoa since they contain caffeine and other chemicals Prevention Strategies Prevention Strategies Drink plenty of hydrating fluids – WATER!Drink plenty of hydrating fluids – WATER! Increase air flow (vents and windows)Increase air flow (vents and windows) If the search objective allows, reduce temperature by climbing to higher altitudeIf the search objective allows, reduce temperature by climbing to higher altitude

5 Other Effects of Altitude Ear Block Ear Block Congestion around the Eustachian tube makes pressure equalization difficultCongestion around the Eustachian tube makes pressure equalization difficult Can produce severe pain and a loss of hearing that can last from several hours to several days (can rupture eardrum)Can produce severe pain and a loss of hearing that can last from several hours to several days (can rupture eardrum) Sinus Block Sinus Block Sinus congestion makes pressure equalization difficult, particularly during descentSinus congestion makes pressure equalization difficult, particularly during descent Can produce severe painCan produce severe pain

6 Other Effects of Altitude Hypoxia Hypoxia Normally not a concern for non-mountainous CAP operations (usually below 12,000 MSL)Normally not a concern for non-mountainous CAP operations (usually below 12,000 MSL) Can have loss of night vision as low as 5,000 feetCan have loss of night vision as low as 5,000 feet Body has no built-in warning system against hypoxiaBody has no built-in warning system against hypoxia Everyone ’s symptoms are differentEveryone ’s symptoms are different Onset altitude will vary depending upon individualOnset altitude will vary depending upon individual

7 Prevention Strategies Ear Block Ear Block Yawn, swallow, tense muscles in throatYawn, swallow, tense muscles in throat Valsalva maneuverValsalva maneuver Sinus Block Sinus Block Don’t fly if you’re not wellDon’t fly if you’re not well Medication usually not effective and has side effectsMedication usually not effective and has side effects Hypoxia Hypoxia Avoid smoking, alcohol and depressantsAvoid smoking, alcohol and depressants Supplemental oxygenSupplemental oxygen

8 A barometer is used to register changes in pressure; measured in inches of mercury A barometer is used to register changes in pressure; measured in inches of mercury Standard sea-level pressure and temperature: Standard sea-level pressure and temperature: inches of mercury29.92 inches of mercury 59 degrees F (15 degrees C)59 degrees F (15 degrees C) A change of 1000 feet in elevation makes a change of about one inch A change of 1000 feet in elevation makes a change of about one inch To correct for local elevation, set altimeter to latest reading (ATIS/AWOS/ASOS/FSS) or enter field elevation To correct for local elevation, set altimeter to latest reading (ATIS/AWOS/ASOS/FSS) or enter field elevation Atmospheric Pressure

9 Three factors: Three factors: PressurePressure TemperatureTemperature HumidityHumidity Altitude and pressure combined to determine pressure altitude Altitude and pressure combined to determine pressure altitude Add non-standard temperature to get density altitude Add non-standard temperature to get density altitude Remember: Drag, lift, power available and true airspeed are all affected by density altitude Remember: Drag, lift, power available and true airspeed are all affected by density altitude Density Altitude

10 TAS vs. DA

11 Density Altitude

12 Flight Computer Circular slide rule Circular slide rule Density altitudeDensity altitude Nautical to statute milesNautical to statute miles True airspeedTrue airspeed Other stuffOther stuff

13 Density altitude and aircraft weight have a tremendous effect on aircraft performance Density altitude and aircraft weight have a tremendous effect on aircraft performance Both must be accurately calculated, especially for mountain flying missions Both must be accurately calculated, especially for mountain flying missions Aircraft Performance

14 As altitude increases pressure decreases; this decrease can have a pronounced effect on flight: As altitude increases pressure decreases; this decrease can have a pronounced effect on flight: Engine (HP) and prop are less efficientEngine (HP) and prop are less efficient Take off distance, climb rate, and landing distance effectedTake off distance, climb rate, and landing distance effected Take off distance almost doubles with a 5000 foot elevation increase Take off distance almost doubles with a 5000 foot elevation increase Rate of climb slows with higher elevation Rate of climb slows with higher elevation Landing distance increases with higher elevation Landing distance increases with higher elevation Higher Humidity, Heat or Height result in reduced aircraft performance Higher Humidity, Heat or Height result in reduced aircraft performance Pressure vs. Performance

15 DA & ROC

16 Reduced Performance

17 Don’t fly at high elevation during the hottest part of the day Don’t fly at high elevation during the hottest part of the day Carefully calculate DA and weight Carefully calculate DA and weight Reduce load: Reduce load: Less fuelLess fuel Crew of three instead of fourCrew of three instead of four Less baggageLess baggage Remember “High to Low, Look out Below” (update altimeter setting hourly) Remember “High to Low, Look out Below” (update altimeter setting hourly) If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course Strategies

18 Flight Near Mountainous Terrain Crews must be constantly careful that the search never takes them over terrain that rises faster than the airplane can climb. Narrow valleys or canyons that have rising floors must be avoided, unless the aircraft can be flown from the end of higher elevation to the lower end, or the pilot is certain that the aircraft can climb faster than the terrain rises. Careful chart study by the crew prior to flight will help identify this dangerous terrain. If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course

19 Flight Near Mountainous Terrain

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22 Questions? Always Think Safety!


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